Watershed .It is very harmful and disasters

Watershed management

 

To Know about
watershed management , it is important to know about watershed .Basically
watershed describe an area of land that contain number of small streams and
small rivers that all drain into a pit or a single large body of water to make
a big river, a pond and lake. First time it is explained by the john Wesley,
scientist geographer.

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After that
watershed management come into account , it describe the planning that how to
use land and water resources to improve the quality  and quantity of the water and natural
resources with in a watershed. The aim of the watershed management is to
optimizing the use of land , water, biosphere, forest etc. in an area to limit
the drought ,floods, to prevent soil erosion, to improve water availability and
increase agriculture product on a land.

Watershed management
helps to bring about the best possible balance in the environment between
natural resources and human being or other living beings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Importance of watershed management-

 

·       To control the damaging
due to runoff- Runoff happen due to the melting of
snow and heavy rainfall .It is very harmful and disasters because in this
situation water don’t get the proper path to flow and it leads to the
landslides types problem which is very dangerous for environment. Thus
watershed management helps in controlling the damage by runoff. Basically in
watershed management water get the proper path to flow . The rainfall water and
the melted water come through the small streams and channels into the watershed
and reduce the chances of damaging due to the runoff.

·       It helps to manage and
utilize the runoff water for useful purpose-Watershed
management helps to use the runoff water in proper direction. Water that is
collect into the watershed is flows out from the watershed through a single
outlet into the form of larger river or lake. After that outlet water use for
agriculture purpose .

·       It helps to control the
pollution of the water-Runoff from rain water
and snow melted water contain large amount of pollution into the water.
Watershed management helps to reduce pollution of water and other impurities
present in the watershed by identifying the different kind of pollution that
are present into the watershed. After that different types of methods are used
to remove that particular impurity.

·       It helps in restoration
of soil quality-Due to the heavy runoff the soil
losses it quality. But watershed management reduces the heavy runoff , thus it
help to improvement and restoration of soil quality . And also raised its
productivity rate.

·       It helps to provide sufficient
drinking water-Watershed management helps to
reduce the water pollution . Thus water within in a watershed ,which is free
from all the pollution takes in the use for drinking purpose. So, watershed
management helps to supply and securing of clean and sufficient drinking water
for the people.

·       It
helps to increase the production level and income of watershed community.

·       It
helps to plant and animals by producing secondary resources , which will not
cause ecological imbalance.

·       Watershed management
helps to increase the life time of the downstream dam because
watershed acts as  alternative path for
dams.

·       By the use of watershed
management method the excess exploitation of resources become minimized.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factor on which watershed management
depends-

 

·       Slope of the watershed-Slope
of the watershed affect the momentum of the runoff . If the slop of watershed
is too low then, the speed f the runoff through streams or channel decreases ,
its mean water take too much time to come to watershed .But if the slope of the
watershed is too high then ,the speed of the runoff through streams increases
and it acts as a flood which is dangerous .So ,the slope of watershed should be
proper. Basically slope is calculated as the elevation difference between the
end point of the main flow path divided by the length of the watershed

·       Amount of rainfall- Watershed
depends upon the sessional rainfall ,greater the rainfall greater will be the
storage of water in the watershed through stream .And less the rainfall lesser
will be the storage of water in the watershed .so, amount of rainfall affect
the flow in the watershed area and also affect storage of water with in a
watershed.

·       Type of precipitation-Watershed
greatly depends upon the type of precipitation , which affect the runoff. For
example suppose there is a precipitation A , which occur in the form of
rainfall and starts immediately as surface runoff depending upon the rainfall
intensity . there is a another precipitation B, which in the form of snow.it
does not result in the surface runoff.

·       Orientation of the
watershed –Orientation of the watershed affect
the hydro cycle of the atmosphere. It also affect the evaporation and
transpiration losses from the any watershed.

·       Shape-
There are different types of shapes for an watershed .It may be square,
rectangle, polygon shaped, circular 
shaped , triangular etc. If the shape of the watershed is larger then ,
it have higher ability to collect more water for long time ,And more water will
be infiltrate , evaporate or it will be utilize by vegetation. I f the shape of
the watershed is small then, the situation become reversed .The shape of any
land is determine by the geology and weather because it mostly influence the
drainage pattern. The density od any stream and shape affect the rate of
runoff.

·       Size-
The size of any watershed have important effect on its functions , Sise of the
watershed determine its quantity to water received, retained, and runoff. Any
small watershed is  pronounced by overland
flow ,which is the main contribution to a peak flow. But in big size watershed
there is no over land flow , the stream flow is the main the main thing which
determine peak flow.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Watershed development in india

 

For
India watershed is not a new concept .If we saw in history of India, we will
find that   people of India already
adapted it by living along the riverbank , storing and managing rainfall ,
runoff and steam flow. So, it were not the new thing for Indians but it is
necessary to modified it for benefit of the mankind.

To
accelerate the development of India ,Indian government started to adopt all the
programs which was based in the watershed management approach. In 1980s
government started decision about watershed but real work started in 1995. The
focus of all the adopted programs was on the micro-watersheds. From here it
took the popularity all over the world. And the number of community based
project for micro watershed increases.

Basically
all these project based on the rainfall and runoff harvesting schemes. These
schemes contains a number of works like, building small dams and ground water
recharge structure etc. But we know the real value of these projects when they
started these projects in rural areas.it was a very big step toward the
development of rural area. 

 

 

Programs run by Indian government
towards watershed management-

 

·       PIME MINISTAR KRISHI
SINCHAYEE YOJNA (WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT COMPONENT) OR (WDC-PMKSY)

 

The
main objective of this program was to maintained  the ecological balance by harnessing ,
conserving and increase the vegetation .After some time when the result of this
program declare ,it was impressive . It helps to prevent the soil erosion . it
helps to regenerate of natural vegetation , rainwater harvesting and recharge
the ground water table.

 

·       NEERANCHAL WATERSHED
PROGRAM

 

NEERANCHAL
is a world bank assisted national watershed management project. It is
started  to give strength and provides
the technical assistance to the watershed component of WDC-PMKSY. This program
is implemented in 9 states of India.