Today’s and stay in refugee camps facing

Today’s crisis in Myanmar
is one of lots of conflicts happening around the globe, however – one of the
most dramatic ones. Thousands of refugees crossing the Bangladesh border every
day tell stories full of horrifying details, and stay in refugee camps facing
danger of diseases and starvation with just one desire – never come back to
Myanmar, where their husbands and wives, sons and daughter, brothers and
sisters were raped and murdered. Satellite images of the territory of exodus
show smoke and ashes in the place of villages. And Myanmar government
officials, asked by NGO’s and members of international community about the
events, deny any possible human rights violations approved by the state,
blaming “Bengali terrorists” spreading fear and forcing Muslim people of Burma
to leave their homes. What is really going on there? Who is responsible for
emergence and escalation of the crisis, who are the main victims and more
importantly, what can be done to help people in distress? The aim of this paper
is, through studying and analysing different perspectives on the crisis,
represent the situation not just as an ethnicity being repressed by
authoritarian government, but as a complex ethnical, religious and political
conflict, in which both sides are responsible to some extend for the escalation
of violence.







Table of contents:

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1)     Introduction

2)     Background

3)     Main
elements of repressions

4)     Waves
of violence, fear and danger of intervention

5)     Refugees
and genocide debate

6)     Contradictions
and flaws of the reports

7)     View
on the conflict – insurgent groups

8)     Conclusions

9)     Bibliography




Humanitarian crises are
terrible. In history books, we can read about great sufferings people had to go
through against their will. Natural catastrophes are devastating, but when the
responsibility for the disaster lies on other people, it is even worse. And the
most terrifying example of such human-caused crisis is genocide. No matter when
and where it happened – in Poland, Ukraine, Rwanda – reports and details of these
events fill our hearts with grief and fear. And today’s crisis in Myanmar is
argued to be just that – a genocide. Numerous of international organisations
and experts cannot qualify this situation any differently. However, the
official position of the government is that there are no violations of human
rights committed on the territory of their state, and all reports are being
enormously exaggerated. The massive exodus of Muslim people to the neighbouring
states – Bangladesh, mostly – is being explained as caused by fear spread by
“Bengali terrorists”. Moreover, the UN refuses to characterise the state of
affairs a genocide. The situation requires immediate action, though no real
measures have been taken by the members of international community, and members
of NGO’s, trying to help people in distress are being humiliated, extradited
and attacked. So what is really going on there? Who is causing all the trouble
and provoking the violence? To what extent can this situation can be considered
a genocide and who is responsible for it? This paper is intended to analyse
different perspectives, represented in NGO’s reports, official claims of
Myanmar government, reports of UN and EU commissions and interviews with
locals. By doing that, it might be possible to put together most of the facts
and present to the reader the picture of this complex situation – and,
hopefully, the best course of action to take will be clearer then.

History and background

Myanmar used to be a
British colony and gained independence in 1948. First, after the Brits left,
the democratic regime was established. But it did not last long – the
government was overthrown in 1962 by a military led by general Ne Win. That
year marked the beginning of a long and difficult period in the history on
Burma – the period of military dictatorship. While the junta was earning money
by exploiting country’s natural resources and enjoying unlimited power, people
were being oppressed, and economic conditions were extremely tough, poverty
level rose significantly, and the relationships between communities within the
regions worsened. (FortifyRights) The situation reached its climax in 1988,
resulting in so called “8888 Uprising”. Massive protests, spread all over the
country and supported by the majority of the population, although resulted in
bloodbath, eventually brought its fruits – the military government performed a
set of reforms, transferring from the Constitution of 1974 to the new martial
law, and forming the new government under the name of State Law and Order
Restoration Council (SLORC) (Zarni and Cowley). The key event after the new
course taken by the government can be considered the elections of May 1990. The
results did not bring any difference; however, it can be considered a first
step towards democratization of Burma. The National League for Democracy (NLD)
won a vast majority of the votes, although the leaders of the party were kept
under arrest. (Fortify Rights) Since the replacement of the SLORC government
for State Peace and Development Council in 1997, the military government
started slowly giving up some of its functions to the majority opposition
party, even though its leader, Aung San Suu Kyi had to go through several times
of being under house arrest. Despite its ongoing process of democratization,
Myanmar had to go through several insurgencies and civil protests, caused by
the oppressive character of the implementation of governmental policies and
harsh economic state of affairs.

The population of Myanmar
historically consists of more than 150 ethnic groups, spread around the regions
and sometimes having very different cultural traditions. (Zarni, Cowley) Most
of the population are Buddhists, but there is also a significant number (around
2 million) of Sunni Muslims, calling themselves “Rohingya”, living in the
province of Rakhine, or Arakan, in their terminology, situated on the Western
coast of Burma. Other diasporas of Rohingya Muslims can be found in Bangladesh,
Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Pakistan and several other countries,
raising the total population number to as many as 8 million people.  Since the country’s independence in 1948, the
Rohingya became the most repressed ethnic group in Myanmar and one of the most
repressed ethnic groups in the world (Lindblom)

Main elements of

Most of the reports
concerning the situation start with the history and the background information
on the Rohingya, and then elaborate the policies and measures taken by the
government to exclude the Rohingya from the social and political life of the
state. One of the most important policies, passed back in 1948 the Union
Citizenship act defined Myanmar citizenship and identified specific
ethnicities – the “indigenous races of Burma”—that were allowed to gain
citizenship. The Rohingya were not included in the list. (FortifyRights) Even
though initially gaining the full citizenship for Rohingya was hard, but
possible, after 1982 the possibility was almost lost for good. This caused lots
of difficulties – from inability to own property and address the court, denial
of provision of healthcare and education. (FortifyRights, Green et al.) Other
measures include, for example, the law passed in 1990’s, requiring Muslims of
the Rakhine state to obtain marriage licenses. These licenses were given under
strict conditions, many of which contradicted to traditional local beliefs,
making it impossible for the couples to obtain these licenses. In the view of
this law, local police forces could persecute the couples who were living together
without such licences, either not being married or married according to local
traditions. (FortifyRights) The regulations passed by the local authorities in
1993 and 2005 were made to regulate birth control, restricting population
increase for Muslims. (FortifyRights). The members of the police and local
authorities also consistently made Rohingya men and boys perform physical
labour, or made them guard the villages at night, despite their occupation and
health conditions. (FortifyRights) Some reports claim that Burmese government
since 2000’s started forming detention camps and “prison villages”, forcing
hundreds of thousands of people to move there, with their lives at these
locations being even harder than before, denying them both their citizenship
and human rights. (Green et al.) In all the above-mentioned cases, which do not
represent the full list of governmentally approved measures to contain and
oppress the Rohingya, any sign of resistance was immediately and severely
punished, sometimes putting the whole village or the local community under the
threat of redemption. (Green et al.)

Waves of violence, fear
and danger of intervention

Totalitarian rule of military
junta, worsening economic situation and systematic repressions against certain
ethnic groups couldn’t last forever without provoking any kind of response:
apart from 8888 Uprising, the biggest resistance so far in the history of
Myanmar, there have been numerous cases of insurgencies and “waves of
violence”. These unrests, originally provoked by the government and dating back
to as far as 1970’s, represented the most brutal measures taken to repress the
Rohingya – physical elimination. (Zarni, Cowley) While the first act of
violence looked like forced migration of the Muslims towards Bangladesh with
the government holding back the provisions, (Zarni, Cowley) with time members
of local Buddhist communities became involved, as in case of 2012 violence. The
origin of the unrest is connected to several Muslims raping and murdering a
Buddhist woman in one of the villages of Rakhine, and thus causing a wave of
hatred and violence among the Buddhists. (Green et al.) The clashes between the
Buddhist and the Muslim communities were claimed by some researchers to be
supported and sponsored by the government (FortifyRights), though there is
little reliable factual evidence. However, the clashes continued, provoked,
sometimes unwillingly, by both Rohingya insurgents, as has been seen in August
this year, and the Buddhists. (FortifyRights) Speaking about provocations among
the Buddhists, it seems necessary to include the role Buddhist monks play in
the propaganda of hatred against the Muslims. There are several unions of the
monks, such as 969 union, for example, actively supported by the government,
which continuously argue for dehumanisation of the Rohingya, claiming that it
is necessary to completely obliterate them. They are described as “beasts”,
that look for any advantage to gain power, rape and murder Buddhist women, and
wipe out the Buddhist community. (FortifyRights) Moreover, to add to the
complexity of situation, as the members of the international community,
especially representatives of NGO’s, try to provide humanitarian aid to
Rohingya communities and argue for their human rights, they are being seen as
enemies, and the organisations being controlled by Muslims, who are trying to
end stability within Rakhine state. The level of hatred and intrust within the
Rakhine community towards everything connected to the Rohingya is so high, that
there have been several reports of the attack attempts on the members of NGO’s,
performed by Rakhine nationalists. (Green et al.) These attitudes within
regular members of the Buddhist community can be connected with very high
degree of authority that Buddhist monks have on the society, and thus having an
opportunity to seed the ideas of hatred within the villagers. Moreover,
Rohingya culture is somehow similar to the traditions of Bangladesh, and it
adds up to the image of Rohingya as being “illegal Bengali immigrants”. (Green
et al.)

Refugees and genocide

Members of the Rohingya
community, facing threats, violence and heavy oppression, bound to inevitably
face a choice – accept the fate of being wiped out, join the insurgencies, or flee
the country. As for Rohingya it is impossible to address any courts within the
state to demand citizenship, and most of the people are not inclined to join
the insurgent groups and spread violence, more and more Rohingya every day
become refugees, crossing borders of neighbouring states in desperate attempt
to find shelter. (MSF) And several NGO’s, such as the Red Cross or MSF, are now
accommodating almost half a million people in refugee camps at the border
region of Bangladesh. Living conditions in these camps are severe, there have
been documented cases of deaths from starvation and diseases spread due to low
sanity level. (MSF) Moreover, after the last wave of violence occurred in
August, facing the perspective of hundreds of thousands more refugees coming to
its border, Bangladesh is starting to deny the refugees to its territory. (Lone,
Marshall) In addition to that, Thailand has reportedly been denying the
refugees on its territory, making the coast guard push the refugee boats away
from its coast, or kidnapping the refugees and either demanding bail or selling
them as slaves to local fishermen. (McPherson) Medecins Sans Frontieres in
their report continuously indicate dangers which refugees living in camps
around Bangladesh are facing every day. Malnutrition, floods, poor access to
clean water and medicine – with periodic fails of financing or humanitarian
convoys being blocked, creating an extremely dangerous situation for the people
seeking help as refugees. (MSF).

Fortify Rights, among
others, has made a thorough legal analysis on possibility of application of the
law of genocide to the Rohingya people. Theirs arguments are based on the
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, that

Any of
the following acts committed with intent to

in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or

group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (b)

Causing serious bodily or mental
harm to members of the

group; (c) Deliberately
inflicting on the group conditions of

life calculated to bring about
its physical destruction in whole

or in part; (d) Imposing measures
intended to prevent births

within the group; (e) Forcibly
transferring children of the

group to another group. (Zarni,

 In their research, taking the law as a base,
they argue that the Rohingya people are being targeted as a group, facing
repetitive violence with intention of total extermination. (FortifyRights) In
their analysis, the conclusion is made that the Myanmar crisis can be called a
genocide, and an independent UNHCR-led commission is necessary for further
investigation and finding people accountable. (FortifyRights)

However, the official
position of the UN is far less radical – the closest definition to “genocide”,
applied officially, was “possibly ethnic cleansing”. Jonah Fisher in her report
for the BBC quotes several interviews UN officials, claiming that due to the UN
policy of long-term democratization and tensions easing, any radical position
towards the Myanmar situation is viewed as unacceptable and can cause different
disciplinary measures, such as enforced change of working position. (Fisher)
These facts can partly explain very indistinct position of high UN officials.

The official position of
the Burmese government, announced at the UN Security Council, states that there
are no violations of human rights performed against the people of Rohingya, and
there are no specific policies and measures implemented to repress and destroy
Rohingya community as a whole, or any of its members. (Zarni, Cowley; UNSC)
According to Myanmar officials, mass exodus of the Rohingya refugees to
neighbouring countries is caused by “Burmese terrorists” and fear spread by
them (UNSC), consequently, all witnesses of atrocities committed in Rakhine
state are “heavily exaggerated”. (UNSC)

A number of sources also
indicates that the resolution of the UNSC was blocked by Russia and China,
presumably because of China’s economic interests in Myanmar. (European
Parliament Database) The statement, blocked by the Council, contained demands
to “release all political prisoners, begin widespread dialogue and end its
military attacks and human rights abuses against ethnic minorities”. (UN News
Centre) The opponents of the resolution claimed that Myanmar crisis is not a
threat to international peace and security, and therefore has to be handled by
other UN agencies. (UN News Centre)

Contradictions and flaws
of reports

As has been previously
indicated, there have been numerous reports made by different NGO’s addressing
the Rohingya problem. However, most of them concentrate on specific aspects of
the problem, failing to view the situation as a whole, and thereby missing
vital details. Such organisations as Medecins Sans Fontieres emphasize their
reports on the living conditions of the members of Rohingya community within
Myanmar, and the refugees outside of its borders. Their reports are vital for
understanding particular features of the crisis, but do not provide any
realistic recommendations. The reports made by Fortify Rights and Zarni and
Cowley, which have been used numerous times in this paper, concentrate their
efforts on providing thorough background information and carrying out legal
analysis concerning the law of genocide. These writings are particularly useful
due to the extensive character of their research, which helps to understand the
complexity of the situation. However, the importance of international community
is shown very vaguely, and there is little or no attention paid to internal
conflicts between members of Buddhist and Muslim communities within Rakhine
state, and hardly any mentioning of Rohingya insurgencies. Moreover, while most
of the reports are emphasizing the seriousness of the situation and critical
condition of the Rohingya community, the official report, carried out by Kofi
Annan Foundation, though taking into consideration all the repressive and
violent measures taken by the government against the Rohingya, fails to mention
anything about the possibility of genocide, and the recommendations, provided
by it, cannot be characterised as anything different but being weak and

Insurgent groups

Talking about the crisis
in the Rakhine state, it is extremely important to mention the insurgencies,
especially the Rohingya ones. Overall population of Muslims un Myanmar
estimates around 16% of total population, and is divided into 4 distinct
communities, with very different relations with Burmese Buddhists. (Selth)
Historically speaking, Muslims had a significant amount of political power
during the colonial period, but their influence started rapidly deteriorating
after Myanmar independence in 1948, and especially after 1988. Throughout the
years state discriminatory policies were supported and even expanded by locals,
who viewed Muslims as aliens, a threat to their normal way of life and future.

The Rohingya, after 1948,
for the northern part of Arakan to be included in newly created East Pakistan.
Others known as Mujahids called for an independent Muslim state to be created
in the area between the Kaladan and Mayu Rivers”. (Selth) Supporting Mujahids
point of view and opposing Ne Win’s regime, Rohingya Independence Force (RIF),
the first organised insurgency group, was created in 1963. In following years
Rohingya Patriotic Front, Arakan Rohingya Islamic Front and others were formed.
(Selth) These groups eventually started a guerrilla war against the central
government, lasting for over 50 years. Their claims were different, the most
radical ones demanding for a separate Muslim state, or demanding to be granted
full Burmese citizenship, though most of them were fighting simply for “freedom
of worship, guarantees against religious persecution, and the same political
and economic rights for Muslims as other communities in Burma”. (Selth) Members
of one of the groups claimed responsible for several killings in August this
year, Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army, say that their actions are nothing more
but a response to years of persecutions, and that in case of being denied their
rights, the war will continue until total extinction. (McPherson) It has also
been noted that religion is not always the main motivating factor for recruits,
as fate of their community and their families seems much more vital.

Rohingya ethnicity has been spread
to several countries throughout the years. The biggest diasporas, except for
Bangladesh, are situated in Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. A report made by
International Crisis Group claims that Rohingya insurgencies in Myanmar have
been supported from these countries both financially and by providing trained
troops. The report says that emergence of a well-organised, well-funded group,
called Harakah
al-Yaqin (Faith Movement, HaY) led by experienced commanders can be a game
changer in Myanmar’ situation, and thus poses a great challenge to the
government. Finally, as it is concluded, the current trend shows that violence,
historically viewed by members of the Rohingya community as counterproductive,
is now being viewed as possibly the only choice left. (International Crisis
Group) This perspective, however obviously needing further investigation,
proves the extent of the seriousness of the situation, and warns the
international community of possible further escalation of the conflict.


The current position of
the international community is that authoritarian government of Myanmar has
been oppressing the Rohingya ethnic group for decades, since the military coup
of 1962, and the scale of violence and repressions has come to the brink of the
genocide. Denial of citizenship, dehumanisation, restricting marriages and
birth control, forced labour, rapes and killings – several legal analyses have
proved that the crisis can be characterised as nothing more but a genocide.
However, it seems necessary to say that the repressions of the Rohingya people
have not only been caused by the government, but also by members of local
Buddhist communities, sometimes led and supported by radical religious groups
of monks. Taking that into consideration, the crisis can be characterised also
as a religious and ethnic conflict between historical Burmese communities –
Muslim and Buddhist, which make up the entity called “Myanmar”. Moreover, in
several cases the violence has been provoked by the groups of insurgents, which
also play their roles in escalation of tensions. Most of them probably just
want to end the oppression and finally being considered as human beings, with
some sources even indicating forced recruitment in such groups. (McPherson)
However, as been pointed out in the report made by International Crisis Group,
these groups, sometimes well trained and financed from abroad, can represent a
significant danger for peace and stability of the country.

Taking all these
arguments into consideration, it seems that viewing the crisis solely as a
state-sponsored genocide is incorrect. The situation is much more complex and
serious, and requires serious and immediate measures from the members of
international community. Whereas there is no doubt that the violence has to be
stopped as soon as possible, the regulations of tensions is most likely going
to be a long and hard process, as current hostile attitude towards members of
Rohingya community cannot be changed easily. It requires a set of long-term
measures, aimed at educational work with the population, and elimination of
radical groups of monks, who have an enormous authority over common Buddhists.
The situation is extremely serious, being probably the most serious
humanitarian crisis of today. It calls for immediate response, and it is up to
international community for how it will be remembered – a tragedy or a miracle.