Timber frame housing a viable alternative to masonry construction Essay

Timber frame lodging a feasible option to masonry Construction

1.1 Introduction

Chapter one of this thesis will reexamine relevant articles of primary and secondary informations to measure the hypothesis: Timber Frame building a feasible option to masonry building.

The chief aim of this literature reappraisal is to increase the cognition and apprehension of the research and to critically advise all that has been researched on lumber frame building in comparing to masonry building.

The literature reappraisal will be categorised into the undermentioned countries:

* Environmental impact

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* Factors set uping Construction Costss. ( clip nest eggs, prelim costs

* Barriers set uping lumber frame

* Fire opposition, acoustic, Thermal etc…

The literature reappraisal compares the sentiment of other research workers and what they have discovered and done in relation to such facets in lumber frame building

1.2 Environmental impact of lumber frame building in comparing to masonry building.

1.2.1 Materials

Roaf ( 2004 p.13 ) quotes “ edifices are our 3rd tegument. To last we need shelter from the elements utilizing three teguments the first is provided by our ain tegument, the 2nd by a bed of apparels and the 3rd is the edifice. In some climes it is merely with all three we can supply sufficient shelter to last, in others the first tegument is adequate. The more utmost the clime, the more we have to trust on the edifice to protect us from the elements. Merely as we take off and set on apparels as the conditions and the clime alterations so we can change our edifices to follow clime alteration ”

Therefore one must look into which method of building is best suited to 1s demands taking into history costs, environmental effects and facets such as thermic, acoustical and fire opposition so hence they can life in a comfy home

There appears to a be a immense demand in the building industry to better the efficiency in edifices, hence to command climate alteration and to do this go on one must look foremost on the building of our edifices and what method has the best impact on the environment.

The writer feels there is a strong instance for look intoing the lumber frame attack as it has a possible for making sustainable places.

“ Practices such as energy efficiency, recycling and the usage of sustainable stuffs and merchandises need to go built-in parts of the design and building procedure and in some instances, displace traditional building procedure and patterns ” sustainable places ( 2000 ) , As Some stuffs used in building can damage the environment: they can make pollution, while others are produced in an energy intensive procedure. Reclaimed stuff and merchandises made from recycled stuff are less likely to do environmental harm. It is of import that stuffs should be judged on their lifecycle and their public presentation once they are installed.

Buchann and honey, ( 1994 ) besides suggest that there is a turning consciousness that in the pick of edifice stuffs, the interior decorator must non merely see the traditional demands, but besides the resource base and the effects on the environment of extraction, industry and processing of the edifice stuff, as the sum of primary energy used can hold immense effects on nursery gas emanations.

Borjesson and Gustavasson ( 2000 ) agrees with this statement as he suggests that,

“ The permutation of sustainability produced wood stuff for other building stuffs can cut down net Co2 emanations ” , Quack ( 2001 ) is in support of this statement with after the consequences of his survey show that the life rhythm of each house is independent of the building stuffs.

Sustainable places ( 2000 ) discuses that lumber is perchance the lone renewable resource in the building sector.

Harmonizing to Timber building ( 2007 ) lumber frame building is the lone environmentally friendly stuff available, as it claimed to be a C impersonal. Claiming 800 kilogram of C dioxide is saved for every three-dimensional metre of wood used. Stating that when comparing a 100m2 lumber frame and masonry house, a sum of 4 metric tons of C dioxide could be saved as a lumber frame brooding contains 5-6 three-dimensional metres mores timber

IPCC ( 1996 ) agrees that the industry of wood merchandises usually requires less energy than that of alternate merchandise which in consequences comparisons to the statements made above.

Noren ( 2001 ) studied lumber frame and traditional masonry houses over their lifecycle and claims that lumber frame houses are a better environmental alteration to implement as C dioxide is reduced on every phase of the edifices life. Sutton ( 2007 ) is in understanding with this statement, claiming lumber frame emit 16.5 % less C dioxide over the life of the edifice in comparing to its opposite number masonry building.

But However Brunklaud and baumann ( 2002 ) suggest after holding examined studies on the environmental impacts of different stuffs on lumber frame and masonry building that wood has the lowest environmental impact in footings of corporal C dioxide emanations, but nevertheless over a complete lifecycle, constructing operational emanations is the most of import factor regardless of the stuffs chosen, and that it is betterments to cut down operational emanations that will profit the overall environmental impact of a edifice.

Bjorklund and Tillman ( 1997 ) besides agree as consequences show that lumber frame has a better environmental impact at industry phase but nevertheless masonry can fit lumber frame over the life of the edifice

Sustainable places ( 2000 ) indicates that edifices histories for 50 % of all co2 emanation and on norm a house produces 7.5 metric tons of carbon dioxide every twelvemonth, four metric tons if built to current ordinances.

“ It is non hence, hard to see the benefits of increasing the insularity capacity of the edifice envelope as one mechanism for cut downing the sum of fossil fuels required in running our places ”

This statement above agrees to such statements from the bulk of writers such as Buchann and honey, Borjesson and Gustavasson, Brunklaud and baumann, that much idea should be put into stuffs such as the cloth, construction of your house and your insulating stuffs hence cut downing the demand of firing fossil fuels

Although lumber frame has a better environmental impact at industry phase from studies above it can be argued that masonry can accomplish as a good an impact on the environment as lumber frame over the life of the edifice.

1.2.2 Waste Impact

A dictionary definition of environment waste is that of any substance, solid, liquid or gaseous for which no usage can be found by the administration or system that produces it for which a method of disposal must be devised. ( RICS, 2009 )

However ( Mnyani 2003, pg4-5 ) describes it as any waste that is generated during the procedure of building, leftovers that are to be disposed station building and this includes destruction dust.

The building industry is one of the largest industrial sectors in the UK,

Construction and destruction waste represents approximately 17 per cent of entire waste production in the UK, doing the building industry the largest generator of controlled waste in the state ( DETR, 1999 ) . It is estimated that some 70 million metric tons of building and destruction waste originate yearly ( Environment Agency Website, 2000 ) .

Ekanaye & A ; Ofori 2000 indicate from their survey on 230 different edifice sites, they found that waste degrees for specific stuffs is systematically higher than the estimated degree for all stuffs studied. New purchases to replace otiose stuffs rework to rectify errors, holds and covering with generated waste cause heavy fiscal losingss to the contractor.

Therefore the writer feels the usage of lumber frame building will play a good function in cut downing waste as the lumber frame panels arrive on site and are erected in a affair of hours in support of this ( Glynn, 2000 ) points out that “ Arrival on site lumber frame kit and erected in less than a hebdomad, approx 1 – 4 yearss ”

This therefore cuts out on stuffs been damaged as a consequence of lying around the site, but nevertheless ( Johnson, 1981p6 ) provinces that Waste occurs on site for a figure of grounds, most of which can be prevented, this waste can happen organize the Misinterpretation of pulling, Overestimating of measure required, Faulty craft and Careless handing of stuffs.

From this statement lumber frame building exceeds masonry as wastage on site can be reduced significantly by the maximal usage of prefabricated units. Equally good as cut downing wastage, quality control and efficiency during industry of standard stuffs in the mill means that the net sum of stuff required for production of the concluding constituent is minimised. Factory conditions make the usage of off cuts more likely.

Recycling and reuse of stuffs have long been associated with wise building practises. Experienced contractors are now harvesting the economic advantage of building waste direction. Many of the contractors that have embraced waste direction have made alterations to their operation and patterns to take advantage of decreased waste disposal costs and grosss derived from recycle, reuse and salvage stuffs. Utilizing, reuse and salvage methods on site reduces stuffs that end up in the landfill, creates a cleaner and safer undertaking site and improves community dealingss.

1.3 Factors set uping costs.

Mark Windsor interpreter for Design and Materials Company suggests that costs for masonry are the same for lumber frame houses http: //www.designandmaterials.uk.com/materials/brick-and-block.html

To measure this statement Glynn ( 2000 ) demonstrates a building programme in the undermentioned charts.

Timber Frame Programme

1. Foundations for kit are prepared, approx 1.5 hebdomads.

2. Arrival on site lumber frame kit and erected in less than a hebdomad, approx 1 – 4 yearss.

3. External doors and Windowss fitted to seal house from external elements, approx 1 hebdomad.

4. During stage three the roof is erected, felted and battened and tiled, approx 1.5 hebdomads.

5. External facing completed approx 1.5 hebdomads.

6. During stage five, first hole electricity, plumbing and woodworking can get down, approx 2.5 hebdomads.

7. Internal wiring and pipe work to be complete, approx 2 – 3 yearss.

8. Drying out period, approx 2 – 4 yearss.

9. Get down 2nd hole services, approx 2 – 3 hebdomads.

10. Decoration can now get down and client takes over.

This concludes lumber frame programme at 12 hebdomads.

Beginning ( Kenneth Glynn, Prefabricated timber frame building, 2000 )

Traditional masonry programme

1. Foundations for kit are prepared, approx 1.5 hebdomads.

2. Masonry envelope can get down approx 4 – 5 hebdomads.

3. About one hebdomad after envelope commenced, repairing and glazing the doors, approx 3 hebdomads.

4. During stage three, the roof is erected, felted and battened and tiled, approx 1.5 hebdomads. Note staging will be on site for the bulk of the above.

5. During stage five, first hole electricity, plumbing and woodworking can get down, approx 2.5 hebdomads.

6. Internal wiring and pipe-work to be complete, approx 2 – 3 yearss.

7. Get down 2nd hole services, approx 2 – 3 hebdomads.

8. Decoration can now get down and client takes over.

This concludes traditional masonry programme at about 20 hebdomads.

Beginning ( Kenneth Glynn, Prefabricated timber frame building, 2000 )

In scrutiny of the building programmes, there is a big derived function in clip graduated table between origin and move in day of the months. It is possible to come to the decision based on the solid facts that the programmes portray to us that the development of the lumber frame house is by far the most efficient in footings of velocity in completion. The difference in hebdomads is rather significant with the programme of development comprising of the lumber frame method of building far more efficient with an overall economy of approximately eight to nine hebdomads. A lumber house is normally watertight by hebdomad five of the physique ; by contrast a traditional masonry house is non watertight for nine or 10 hebdomads. Traditional building methods are highly vulnerable to inclement conditions conditions. Such inclement conditions conditions will do hold to the overall completion of the undertaking, this is non a factor for lumber frame building as all internal plants can began at hebdomad five, despite any external conditions conditions.

By Glynn 2000 contrasting these two building programmes it shows that the lumber frame programme would offer a rapid development building to run into market demand therefore supplying a return on your development about of immediate consequence.

In support of Glynn an article in built it magazine states “ When comparing lumber frame to masonry, masonry is by and large the slower of the two. ”

However this article indicates “ one must factor in clip it takes to acquire a lumber frame onto site from the day of the month it is ordered, which can take up to 16 hebdomads ” ( Build It magazine, published May 2008. )

However from analyzing Glynn 2000 building programme there are direct costs salvaging advantages such as decreased building clip, operating expenses and less waste. Other factors that should be considered when transporting out a cost benefit analysis are the preliminaries costs as early off-hire of Cranes and scaffolding due to cut down building times and besides reduced on site labor which saves money. With brick and block, physique costs are spread over a longer period of clip. However one must see the overall programme cost decreases by lumber frame building.

Timber Frame is touted to hold the undermentioned advantages:

aa‚¬A? That it is a faster method of building with the ability to halve the entire on-site building continuance ;

aa‚¬A? That it requires less on-site labor ;

aa‚¬A? That big figure of units can be constructed within a short clip ;

aa‚¬A? That the faster building and reduced on-site work brings fiscal benefits to the developer in footings of shorter period of financing the undertaking and completed edifices being put up for sale much faster.

Factory-produced places are normally erected on site in a affair of yearss. Once up, the internal coatings can be started right off, which can bring forth farther clip nest eggs. However, there may be drawn-out holds involved in acquiring the frame built. Besides bear in head that thin-joint masonry promises many of the velocity advantages of lumber frame. The NHBC estimates up to a three-month clip salvaging by taking lumber.

On Price

For many old ages, lumber frame used to be thought of as a little more expensive, but advocators claimed that you could claw back any excess disbursal by shortening the length of the occupation overall, therefore cut downing overhead and finance costs. However, more late the image has become baffled. Blocklayers became really expensive, gnawing the cost derived function ; while lumber frame mills became really busy, lengthening the clip taken to treat the orders, and therefore losing much of the velocity advantage. The fact is that there truly is n’t that much cost difference. As a regulation, masonry sits better ( and cheaper ) behind a brick or rock tegument, whilst lumber frame comes into its ain behind a lightweight external tegument such as lumber.

Representatives of both timber frame and brick and block would hold that there is comparatively non much of a difference in the cost between the two buildings techniques. If timber frame is chosen for its speedy physique clip,

One believes that overall the cost benefits of lumber frame houses offer better value as the proposed development would include rapid building to run into market demand therefore supplying a return on your development about of immediate consequence. . The rapid building of lumber framed houses enables the contractor to build a big figure of houses in a comparatively short period of clip. A lumber frame house proprietor would besides hold the added benefit of a more energy efficient place

1.4 Percept of lumber frame and its barriers:

The usage of lumber frame building of houses has faced many challenges in recent old ages as other stuffs such as sandcrete blocks, concrete blocks and brick replaced timber as chief edifice building stuffs due to many barriers such as psychological barriers chiefly form general populace.

The public perceptual experience of lumber frame building in comparing to the traditional masonry building. B.k. Baiden, E. Badu, F.S Menz ( 2004 ) is as follows

* Timber can consumed by fire if used in edifice building,

* Durability is comparatively hapless

* structural ability

The deficiency of apprehension and misanthropic positions expressed by the populace on the fire opposition, lastingness and structural belongingss of lumber frame structures ab initio made Timber frame building to have negative remarks throughout the last few decennaries and has came under examination which has influenced the negative perceptual experience the general populace have adopted

“ The lumber frame industry was efficaciously killed off nightlong in the early 1980 ‘s, after the ‘world in action ‘ programme raised a figure of uncertainties about the criterions of building ” Barry ‘s ( 2002 )

Timber frame building has received negative remarks throughout the last few decennaries and has come under examination which has influenced the negative perceptual experience the general populace have adopted. Some members of the public associate lumber with been a fuel for fire and hence timber frame constructions are more apt to light. The writer feels this is a rough and unfair appraisal, which has restricted the growing of lumber frame lodging during the 1980 ‘s and the early 1990 ‘s when it could hold gained a valuable pes clasp in the lodging market during this period. However in recent old ages the merely little concerns remain in the public sphere and this has helped timber frame lodging to derive a 30 % portion in the domestic lodging market. Many professionals in the lumber frame industry believed that consumers no longer had uncertainties sing fire, which will be illustrated subsequently in the questionnaire conducted by the writer.

Government studies indicate that “ There are some residuary reserves about lumber frame among designers, applied scientists, builders, administrative organic structures, fiscal establishments and insurance companies every bit good as with terminal users. Perceived jobs with lumber frame building in the lodging market from both the terminal users and local governments would include a sensed greater hazard of fire, issues of sound fading in a lumber construction and the impact such a construction might hold on the security of the terminal user. ”

nevertheless Narty 1971 provinces that Timber constructed houses can be built to last for a period of 40-100 old ages, this suggests that lumber frame building is every spot every bit good as the traditional masonry method.

“ Most people perceive a brick & A ; block house to be more ‘solid ‘ than lumber frame ”

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.buildstore.co.uk/mykindofhome/events/different-building-systems-weekend-in-detail.html

Traditional masonry pit walls, most normally brick with an interior structural foliage of concrete block, have dominated house edifice in the UK for the past 80 old ages, but there are a figure of other systems that are bit by bit doing inroads, including lumber frame,

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cyprus-property-buyers.com/files/constructionmethods.pdf

One inquiry that perpetually raises its caput is ‘which is cheapest ‘ of the two most prevailing systems – lumber frame or brick and block?

The writer will look in great item at the belongingss in lumber frame edifices to measure the perceptual experience in the industry towards timber frame and why they think masonry is the better building overall.

1.4.1 Fire opposition:

Barry ( 1998 ) states that although lumber is a combustible stuff, it can work as a structural member for a longer period than an unprotected metal member provided it is of equal subdivision

White ( 1999 ) agrees with this statement stating

“ The comparatively good structural behavior of lumber in fire is due to the fact that it has unvarying strength through the mass. The burden bearing capacity is hence reduced in proportion to the loss of the cross subdivision, the unburned subdivision, nevertheless, retains a full high strength

Forest merchandises research institute ( 1988 ) besides agrees with this ; as the consequences from a survey showed that lumber of sufficient size is hard to fire because of cross subdivisions decompose comparatively easy due to its low thermic conduction and the formation of wood coal on the outer subdivisions

Sustainable houses ( 2000 ) agrees with the above as it states that “ timber frame places tested to BS476 demonstrate that they exceed these demands

BRE structural study ( 2002 ) indicates that in the TF 2000 BRE undertaking “ no grounds to propose that lumber frame building suffers disproportionally form jobs of hapless craft or that it is exposed to higher hazards of fire spread ” than traditional masonry opposite number.

In support of this TRADA and BRE fire safety research concluded that “ Timber frame performs every bit good as other building in fire and life safety is at no greater hazard ” .

2.4.2 Thermal:

Sustainable ( 2000 ) suggests that one of the most normally identified advantages of lumber frame systems in relation to thermic public presentation, The most of import factor by far being the structural envelope.

“ The most basic lumber frame place will transcend current edifice ordinances demands ”

In support of this statement Doran ( 2008 ) BRE states timber frame insularity solutions lend themselves to traveling significantly beyond the minimal thermic public presentation demands

Timber frame can easy run into current ordinances by increasing stud size therefore increasing the sum of insularity, giving a better U-value.

With the authoritiess publication of new ordinances in 2006 portion L relating to energy preservation and airing in new places

Timber frame uk suggests that with the debut of these new portion L ordinances for new built places timber frame lodging has increased because of its suitableness for modern edifice and it can follow with the new ordinances so easy and be efficaciously

With timber being a hapless music director of heat Barry ( 1993 ) , the thermic conduction is really low doing it a natural dielectric which is two to four times of common insulating stuffs Simpson ( 1999 )

However Doran 2008 indicates that to accomplish the expected thermic public presentation in lumber frame homes requires good craft

1.4.3 Acoustic:

Sound is a signifier of energy which can be transmitted over a distance from its beginning through a medium, such as air or a solid component of building e.g. a wall or a floor.

A building based website Homebuilding.Co.uk indicates that heavyweight constructing techniques have a clear advantage here. But in degage lodging, the main country of concern is noise between floors and most masonry places really have timber intermediate floors, so in this regard there is small difference

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.homebuilding.co.uk/feature/construction-systems-masonry-vs-timber

Sustainable ( 2000 ) indicates that lumber frame masonry outperforms masonry party walls by some border

In support of this Trada ( 2000 ) agrees with this statement bespeaking “ lightweight lumber frame party walls between semi-detached or terraced houses and flats and party floors between flats meet the current demands of the edifice ordinances for sound insularity. However many writers argue this ( … . ? ? ? ? ) saying that constructing mass is the lone manner to supply high sound insularity.

An article by Clive Fewins, published in place edifice and Renovating magazine agrees with the above statement with respects to the public perceptual experience, where the public perceptual experience of masonry built is strong and lasting

“ A masonry construction gives a house a feeling of solidness, as the denseness of the blocks provides a high degree of acoustic mass ”

Trada province It ‘s interesting that even our criterion 140mm lumber frame walls are 20 per cent more thermally efficient than current edifice ordinances demand. Sound insularity is more efficient excessively with a lumber frame, compared with other methods of building.

This public perceptual experience of the acoustic public presentation of lumber frame has besides played a function in impeding the growing of lumber frame lodging but these uncorroborated positions have been contradicted by a figure of independent appraisals within the industry.

However BRE are in favor of lumber frame constructing stating, “ If all homes had sound insularity every bit good as that measured in party walls of lumber frame places, the jobs of noise from neighbors would be greatly reduced. ”

Merely like any other new places, when built with good criterions of craft, lumber frame places will run into all current Building Regulations and Standards on sound insularity and acoustic public presentation. It is normally assumed that merely solid walls that are found in traditional masonry houses can vouch you peace and quiet. In 2003 trials were carried out by ( BRE ) the Building Research constitution on ‘Robust Details ‘ that can be used by any interior decorator and house builder, this research proved that lumber frame houses performed best out of any building method. This research was besides reviewed on the UK ‘s largest database of trial instances on sound public presentation traveling back over 17 old ages, by Dr Sean Smith of Napier University who besides stated the superior sound public presentation of lumber frame houses.

A statement from Dr Sean Smith in a recent website article on lumber frame building shows after researching on acoustical public presentation how he personally feels lumber frame can easy surpass current ordinances “ Our research shows that lumber frame party walls are the best acting in the industry – for current and future ordinances. ”

The ( Irish lumber frame association ) suggest the importance of mass has ever been perceived as been critical to accomplish good sound insularity, nevertheless trust on mass entirely would be impractical and a mostly unpopular method of bettering sound public presentation. In recent old ages other features have became more of import such as isolation, stiffness, absorbency and air stringency. Isolation makes it more hard for sound to propagate through the edifice by presenting physical interruptions, this is an of import for good sound insularity, and the pit walls in both house types execute this map. Stiffness of structural members, gives greater opposition to construction borne quiver caused by sound. Absorbency in nothingnesss helps stifle sound and eventually by guaranting the separating constructions are wholly sealed, sound escape through spreads is avoided. It is widely accepted that lumber frame building is working these features and is good in front of other methods when the ordinances change in the hereafter.

Noise nuisance within places is going a more widespread concern in modern times as ownership telecastings, stereos and game consoles are at an all clip high and this is doing struggle among neighbors. The findings of BRE have contradicted the public perceptual experience that mass is indispensable to derive high-quality acoustic public presentation.

Lastingness: Narty ( 1971 ) argues that The Durability of lumber is frequently discussed with mention to fungi, or insect onslaught. In absence of these, lumber is unusually immune and will last for long periods of clip ; the writer has found such grounds as the Egyptian grave which are over 200 old ages old.

BRE ( 1996 ) conducted two big scale independent studies and found no cases of putrefaction caused by H2O immersion. And all timber exposed countries ( Cavity ) that are preservative treated shall do small problem

In support of this Simpson ( 1999 ) agrees with this statement proposing that lumber kept invariably dry does non disintegrate and a big proportion lumber used is unbroken dry and can last for really long periods

1.5 Advantages of lumber frame over masonry:

Timber frame offers a figure of advantages compared to most other signifiers of building

The antecedently stated the u – bend for the rise in popularity for lumber frame methods of building has non been baseless, with big benefits to the client and contractor been identified as the footing for this success. Many of the state ‘s contractors in the lodging are now earnestly sing this technique because it,

“ provides high quality houses, rapidly and be efficaciously ”

Beginning ( Prefabrication-solution to an overstretched industry, Nov 2001, The Irish building Industry Magazine )

“ The greater usage of well-designed lumber frame houses will assist ease the force per unit areas on traditional building trades, it besides has the benefit of assisting to rush up undertakings and assist guarantee cleaner and safer sites ”

Beginning ( Webb, M. , The building magazine, Prefabrication Report )

On Speed

Factory-produced places are normally erected on site in a affair of yearss. Once up, the internal coatings can be started right off, which can bring forth farther clip nest eggs. However, there may be drawn-out holds involved in acquiring the frame built. Besides bear in head that thin-joint masonry promises many of the velocity advantages of lumber frame. The NHBC estimates up to a three-month clip salvaging by taking lumber.