The Barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra L.), a member of the Malpighiaceae is a tropical fruit-bearing large, bushy shrub or small tree. The fruit is commonly known as
West Indian cherry, native cherry, garden cherry, French cherry and Acerola. Barbados cherry is native to the Lesser Antilles from St.
Croix to Trinidad, also Curacao and Margarita and neighboring northern South America as far south as Brazil. It has
become naturalized in Cuba, Jamaica and Puerto Rico after cultivation, and is
commonly grown in dooryards in the Bahamas and Bermuda, and to some extent in
Central and South America, but now it is also grown in the regions in tropical
and sub-tropical areas of Asia. It is naturally adapted to both medium and low
rainfall regions. The crop is known for its ability to tolerate long periods of
has the following major
constituents in 100 g of fruit: vitamin C (1.500 mg), vitamin A (77-215 mg)
carotenoids (1.44 mg), vitamin B1 (0.02 mg), vitamin B2 (0.07 mg), anthocyanins (16
mg), proteins (0.21 to 0.80 g), fat (0.23 to 0.80 g), carbohydrates (3.6 to 7.8
g), and minerals especially iron (0.24 mg), calcium (11.7 mg), and phosphorus
(17.1 mg). Due to its constitution, this fruit has many medicinal properties:
it is a vitamin source and acts as an antioxidant and anti-anemic, appetite stimulant, healer, anti-inflammatory, and mineraliser. Therefore, it is prescribed as a
nutrient tonic in colds, in pulmonary tuberculosis, diabetes, liver diseases,
rheumatism, fevers in general, varicose ulcers, hard to heal wounds, bone
fractures, bruises, bleeding gums, and dysentery (Rosinete et al., 2012).The fresh ripe fruits are used for
making of jams, murabba, jellies,
candies, syrups, juices and pickles. Also, they are used in baby foods and many
recipes as a supplementary source of vitamin C.
Barbados cherry is a large, bushy shrub or small tree attaining up to 20 ft (6
m) in height and an equal breadth; with more or less erect or spreading and
drooping, minutely hairy branches, and a short trunk to 10 cm in diameter. Its
evergreen leaves are elliptic, oblong, obovate, or narrowly oblanceolate,
somewhat wavy, 2-7 cm long, 9.5-40 mm
wide, obtuse or rounded at the apex, acute at the base; bearing white, silky,
irritating hairs when very young; hairless, dark green, and glossy when mature.
flowers, in sessile or short-peduncled
cymes, have 5 pink or lavender, spoon-shaped, fringed petals. The fruits, borne
singly or in two or three clusters in the
leaf axils, are oblate to round, cherry-like but more or less obviously three-lobed; 1.25-2.5 cm wide; bright-red, with
thin, glossy skin and orange-colored,
very juicy, acid to sub acid, pulp. The
three small, rounded seeds each have two large and one small fluted wing, thus
forming what are generally conceived to be three triangular, yellowish,
leathery-coated, corrugated inedible “stones”.
It is not advisable to propagate by seed due to
low viability, viability, poor germination (5-50%), and a long time for
bearing. The vegetative propagation in Barbados cherry is utmost desirable in order to
propagate true-to-type plants. Hence, vegetative methods of propagation viz., air layering, cleft or modified
crown grafting, budding and cuttings were followed. Among different methods of
vegetative propagation, stem cutting is preferred which is inexpensive, rapid,
simple and does not require the special techniques as in case of other methods.
Nowadays, Barbados cherry is
achieving more importance and especially
preferred in dry land horticulture. Commercial propagation of Barbados cherry
is done through cutting using growth regulators. Even though it was multiplied by cuttings, but rooting reactions and
growth characters of the cuttings are very important. The two important auxins
i.e., IBA and NAA have been used widely either singly or in combination for
induction of rooting in cuttings of various crop species. Treatment with auxins
has been shown to increase the percent of
rooting and increase the number and quality of roots in a large number of plant
species (Chimel, 1985).
The reports on an investigation on the propagation of Barbados
cherry from cuttings and use of growth regulators for better root growth are
scanty. Therefore, necessitates undertaking the study on the propagation of Barbados cherry using different
growth regulators for rapid multiplication. With this background, the study was
carried out to known the “Study on rooting of stem cuttings in Barbados cherry
(Malphighia glabra L.) in Polyhouse
under hill zone of Karnataka” with the following objectives.
To know the
optimum concentration of IBA on rooting of stem cutting.
To assess the
combined effect of IBA and NAA on rooting of stem cuttings.