The Resident- General in Morocco from 1912

 The kingdom of Morocco is
known by its eventful history. This country was found by Idriss I in 789 and
has been ruled by many dynasties like the Al Moravit, Al Mohad and Marinid.
Morocco was the only country that avoided the Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite
dynasty is the current rulling dynasty since 1666. In 1884, Spain created a
protectorate in the coastal areas of Morocco.

1912 treaty of Fez was a treaty in which Sultan Abdelhafid agreed to allow
France to make Morocco a French protectorate. It was perceived as a betrayal by
moroccan  nationalists and led to the
1912 Fez riots and the war of the Rif (1919-1926) between the colonial power
Spain and the Berber tribes of the Rif led by AbdelKrim.

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the convention of Fez established a protectorate over Morocco, Hubert Lyautey
who was a French army general and colonial administrator became the first
French Resident- General in Morocco from 1912 to 1925.

1917, Edith Wharton made a trip to Morocco upon an official invitation
from General Hubert Lyautey, Resident General of French Morocco, who was keen
to show to the world the improvements and progress France was making in its
Muslim colony even in the difficult times of World War I.”

  After the end of the world war I, Edith spent
three weeks traveling through Morocco’s cities and through its desserts in a
motorcar provided by the French authorities. She published her book “In
Morocco” in 1920 to be the first Moroccan travel guide.

book permits the reader to see the beauty of the cities that Edith Wharton went
to through her eyes and through the incredible details that she used in her
book’s chapters to make the reader visualize a very close image of all those
sights and sounds that she faced in her journey. She divided her book into many
sections which made it so helpful. Without mentioning that each section
contains some sub-titles to specify her work.




these sections there is the name of one of the most beautiful cities: “Fez”.
This ancient city has a rich history that I found it an interest subject for my
final project.

Wharton used an overwhelming vocabulary to describe her experience in Morocco
especially in this city. Her exciting observation of the Moroccan art,
architecture, history, religion and culture made her book the perfect choice
for a cultural studies student to work on.


Theoritcal framework:

    My final project is going to be an analysis
of the third chapter  of the book “In
Morocco” by Edith Wharton. The chapter named Fez and it contains six sub-titles
(The first vision, Fez Eljdid, Fez Elbali, Al Andalous and the Potters’ Field,
Medersas, Bazaars and an Oasis and The last Glimpe).

     My research paper will be divided into six
parts. The first part which is the introduction is going to be a brief review about
the moroccan history ,and more details about Edith’s journey. The second next
parts is going to be about the description of Edith Wharton of Fez city
including the people, their way of living, art, religion, history, traditions
and culture.

conclude, I’ll be talking about the concepts that are related to this book.e.g.
race, famine, cultural diversity and the representation of women at that time.


chose this book because of its name plus the name of the novelist Edith Wharton
who is a good writer. She has the passion of travel and the  love of arts and cultures. It is seen from her
works through the details that she uses in describing other cultures.
Therefore, I think that this is the reason why General Lyautey chose Edith Wharton
for that mission.