The New Psychological Contract: The Changing Nature of Employee-employer Expectations Essay

Abstract

This paper discusses a major issue in the workplace which has to be addressed by employers. For promising results of efficiency and productivity, managers/leaders provide solutions by idealizing necessary changes for improvement in the workplace. In so doing, implications for human resource planning is suggested for increase knowledge on the possible positive and negative outcomes of new proposals in plan for change. Some factors including the human resource planning includes effective and careful recruitment, selection, and hiring of qualified talents, and also the effective leadership used by employers/managers in handling their employees: by providing the employees of their right to communicate with employers and have their right to express their acceptance or resistance to newly proposed plans for the company/organization’s growth.

The New Psychological Contract: The Changing Nature of Employee-employer Expectations

Introduction

            In every organization or company, it is important to recruit and employ the best, qualified employees to help the organization in fulfilling its objectives and organizational goals. Employees acquiring the adequate talent, skills, and competency are hired to promote, to project, and to motivate an existing working environment with employees who are competent, productive and efficient members of the workforce. Strategic recruitment strategies then, are important to attract qualified candidates for the existing vacant job position/s (Heathfield, 2009).

Body

Recruitment, Selection and Hiring

            In effective recruitment, selection, and hiring procedure, the best candidate/s is/are the ones to be hired and to get the job. In order to execute this, it is important for employers to conduct an interview to carry out the careful selection of the candidates short-listed and prescreened. The initial interview is essential to assess the competencies of the candidate for the position and also for the interviewer to evaluate if the skills of the candidates match the required skills and experience of the existing job position. Moreover, the personality and overt behavior of the candidate could also be observed and noted by the interviewer so as to see if there would be a foreseen problem in the candidate if ever he/she gets the job and be on board (Heathfield, 2009).

Compensation and Benefits

            With regards to compensation, the employer/interviewer should be resourceful and creative enough to set and offer the latest standard salary or payout in co-existing companies. In addition to compensation, benefits packages should also be properly designed and created by the employer. Interviewer should inform the applicant or the talent candidate of what future waits for him/her in the company—it also attracts the candidate to pursue the application because of the discussed benefits that the company should provide after being successfully hired. Furthermore, compensation and benefits packages offered by the employer could be used as a persuasive and attractive tool which helps in increasing interested applicants and also inducing talent retention among existing employees.

One Key Human Resource Issue in the Workplace: The Resistance to Change

            One major key issue in the workplace which needs to be put into account, addressed, and taken further actions is the resistance of the employees to change. Change, which is the only this that is constant in organizations, is mostly imposed by the managers and leaders of every company and organizations. For the purpose making jobs easier for the employees, making the technology user-friendly for the employees and customers, and for making the business process run smoothly, management devise ways and implement policies on order to carry out their proposed change for ideal productivity and increased rate of development and advancement of the company. Further, the resistance to change may be interpreted in either of the two ways: change as a positive way to find areas of possible flaws in newly imposed plans, and change as a negative hindrance to promote the ideal change. Thus, the advocate of change should therefore measure the pros and cons of concurrent resistance to change in order to evaluate if the existing ideal plan would really have a promising desired result or if it will just hinder productivity, efficiency, and success for the company along with the employees (TMG, 2002). However, to define “resistance to change” in the company, it is often interpreted by the advocate of change when employees give a negative feedback for the proposed plan and they criticize the proposal by suggesting the possible negative outcomes of the plan in case it is implemented (TMG, 2002).

            In every change required by the managers/leaders in an organization, the employees’ full participation is very essential. Further, the standpoint and opinion of the employees are very important as well to consider before implementing the necessary changes and execute the proposed plans. Moreover, in order for employers, managers or leaders to best understand the resistance to change in the workplace, the Theory of Constraints (TOC) is conceptualized to explain and analyze the possible outcomes (negative and positive results/outcomes) of newly conceptualized ideas and plans before it is carried out and implemented in the company/organization (TMG, 2002).

            Relatively, it is to put into account that both the employer and the employees take part into the change in the organization. The employer could act like that of a sales agent persuading the members or the employees to participate in evaluating the proposed plan and conceptualized ideal for a change in the organization. Employer is expected together notes from the employees’ feedbacks and suggestions to serve as a “foresight” of the possible outcome of the plan. Therefore, employer measures the proportionality of the available pros and cons or advantages and disadvantages of the proposal ideas and plans for change based also from the opinion of the competent thinkers, employees in the organization. But of course, the employer/manager or leader of the change should carefully make wise decision after communicating the feedback of the employees regarding the proposal plan for change (TMG, 2002).

Potential Implications for Human Resource Planning

            In order for the company/organization to achieve advancement and desired results of productivity and efficiency in the workforce, the advocate of change (may it be the CEO, Manager, or leader of the organization), should determine the following: 1) what it is to change in the organization; 2) What change would be done 3) and the procedure on how to carry out the change in the company/organization. Further, the last number (3) is the most important aspect that the advocators of change should consider; since, it is in the procedure where the change depends to be resulting to a positive or negative outcome. Most of all, if the procedure was carried out in the wrong way, the efforts made from numbers one and two would be put into waste. In so doing, therefore a “need” and it is very important for every company to conduct regular meetings for Human Resource planning which will aid to equip the employers and employee with adequate knowledge and information sharing and brainstorming of ideas for the company’s completion of target goals and objectives (TMG, 2002).

            For effective human resource planning, the following issues in the workplace should be discussed: Local area workforce issues, external workforce issues, internal workplace issues, and other local area considerations (WPQ, 2009). First, in addressing local area workplace issues, it is important to identify the changes made in the existing activities and infrastructures of the organization. For instance, it is essential to determine the additional information about newly imposed policies or regulations set as standard procure which has to be followed by every employee in the organization. Plus, it is also important to put into account the current changes carried out in every areas of the organization to be able to monitor its progress or direction. This is to assess whether the newly-introduced technology or new imposed policies and rules result to positive feedbacks and should be promoted for continuous use in the workplace (WPQ, 2009).

            Resistance to change in the workplace should be carefully addressed by the managers/leaders to avoid grievances, negative reactions, and reduced productivity among the employers who are not in favor the newly imposed change in the system or policy. The primary advocate of the change should be able to have focus and attend on areas and issues in the workplace. An adequate time should be spent by the manager/leader or advocate of change to deal with every issue that arises in the company /organization. In order to determine what solution is needed to solve a particular issue in the workplace, the bet way is for leaders to determine what is the foreseen resistance occurring among the employees.

            Further, the best way to provide the best solution to resistance to change is communication. As the employers, managers/leaders conduct frequent meetings, it gives chance to employers and employee to communicate their ideas on issues in the workplace which is necessary to be addressed in discussions. In order to surpass challenges in the work system, communication of feedbacks and proposed solutions should be frequently done (TMG, 2002).

Advantages Brought by Entertaining and Addressing Resistance to Change in Workplace

            For every successful implementation of policies and rules, active participation of both the employer and employees should be that interactive discourse during communicating ideas and exchanging of opinions so that resistance would be controlled. Rather, accurate information would be presented for inducing proper understanding of facts in the proposals before reacting negatively in the proposed plans. Where there is a frequent, active communication among employer and employee in the company/organization, it shall therefore harness a trustworthy, two-way, participative, and harmonious employer-employee relationship with lesser instance of resistance to change (TMG, 2002).

            However, resistance to change in the workplace should not be feared by the employers. It is not most of the time a hindrance to the implementation of new proposed plans of the employer/manager, it shall not be take as a sole negative disagreement and hindrance to change. Rather, resistance to change could be treated as a way to assess and evaluate the possible flaws and negative outcomes that a proposed change may acquire encounter in the future. Resistance to change serves as the countercheck and objective criticism to the strategic plans of the employer and management which should be viewed as objective attempt of employees in participation to view what would be more advantageous for the company. Therefore, resistance to change is directed towards growth and advancement of the company/organization and it should be entertained and addressed by managers/ leaders to increase their awareness of the future difficulties and consequences that a newly proposed plan , policy, rule may encounter (TMG, 2002).

            The constructive way of taking resistance as a room for improvement in organizations is an optimistic attitude and an objective leadership strategy for the manager’s/employer’s part. Constructive in a way that the manger/leader is increasing one’s awareness upon measuring the possible pros and cons of a specific plan that is to be implemented. For instance, in constructing or building a bridge in a highway, engineers should think of the possible materials that have to be used in order to build a strong foundation for the bridge to ensure its strength, durability, and safety. Upon weighing the functions of the materials, engineers have to know which materials are weak ad which materials are strong in order to decide what specific materials have to be used in constructing the bridge (TMG, 2002).

            Communications of the possible flaws of the proposals are effective way of brainstorming effective and ineffective strategies which aid to alleviate possible negative outcomes of newly proposed plans. The more negative results and outcomes foreseen by the employees during brainstorming of ideas and sharing of feedback and opinion with regard to business or system proposals, the more beneficial it could be for the company and the lesser instance of fallbacks and failures in the company/organization (TMG, 2002).

            On the contrary, it is most likely that some managers/ advocate of plans in the workplace tend to focus on the promising results of their new ideas or proposals for change. The disadvantage on this perception of a plan is that it is one-sided and therefore, it omits and overlooks the other side of the coin. For instance, in proposal of a plan in response to provide a solution in a certain problem or issue in the workplace, the result may alleviate if not cease the occurrence of the specific problem in the workplace. In addition, it is better understood as incongruence and inverse proportion of elements in the workplace where the increase of the other is affecting the decrease of other aspects or facets of production in the workplace. In so doing, careful manipulation of the variables in affecting the job performance and production rate in the company or organization has to be executed and this is possible through identifying and determining the variables that affect both the positive and negative outcomes of proposed plans for the company (Heathfield, 2009).

Theory of Constraints: The Resistance to Change

            The theory of constraints where the idea of resistance to change in the workplace is extracted is an effective tool or medium for constructive cognitive thinking and highly-competent way of measuring variables before decision making to ensure profit and lessen the costs for the company’s benefit (applicable for both the employer and the employee). Further, defining the possible negative outcomes of things is also a way of using intuitive thoughts or hunches to prevent miscalculations and to minimize or cease costs in the company /organization (TMG, 2002).

            Brainstorming that is carried out during active discourse in one-on-one or group meetings with employer/manager facilitates this sharing of ideas which results to objectivity for the employer’s/manager’s part. The employer/manager then, after collecting the positive and negative feedbacks from the proposals, should therefore count the frequency of those positive and negative responses in order to reach a consensus. The employer should put into account the frequency of the number of employees who voted for positive and negative feedback for the proposal (TMG, 2002).

            Relatively, these concrete tolls used in the theory of constraints are sufficiency logic and necessity logic. The first (sufficiency logic) pertains to the “If –then; because (TMG, 2002).” statement which explains the possible outcomes of situations if a certain plan is executed. Second, (necessity logic) which uses the statement: “In order to–we must (TMG, 2002)” which describes what variables are needed to compliment the proposed plan in order to make the proposal effective and to prevent instances of error and failure in the target objective of plan (TMG, 2002).

            Such mentioned tools of necessity and sufficiency logic might not be adequate for the assurance of promising desired outcome; however, it may alleviate the instance of major failure, and therefore produces minimal cost that is beneficial for both the employer and the employee in the company or in the organization. Thus, the Theory of Constraints (TOC) or the thinking tools sufficiency and necessity logic are to be used for facilitating the thought processes of employer and employee. In order to have a trusting and harmonious environment in the workplace, employer and employee shall establish this rapport and harmonious, mutual employer-employee relationship (TMG, 2002).

Conclusion

            One major key issue in the workplace which needs to be put into account, addressed, and taken further actions is the resistance of the employees to change. Change, which is the only this that is constant in organizations, is mostly imposed by the managers and leaders of every company and organizations. For the purpose making jobs easier for the employees, making the technology user-friendly for the employees and customers, and for making the business process run smoothly, management devise ways and implement policies on order to carry out their proposed change for ideal productivity and increased rate of development and advancement of the company. Further, the resistance to change may be interpreted in either of the two ways: change as a positive way to find areas of possible flaws in newly imposed plans, and change as a negative hindrance to promote the ideal change. Thus, the advocate of change should therefore measure the pros and cons of concurrent resistance to change in order to evaluate if the existing ideal plan would really have a promising desired result or if it will just hinder productivity, efficiency, and success for the company along with the employees.

References

Heathfield, S. M. Index to articles about recruiting, hiring, and employee salary on the HR

site. Retrieved April 07, 2009, from http://humanresources.about.com/od/hrbasicsfaq/a/hr_hire_index.htm

Time Management Guide.com. (2002). Effective delegation skill. Retrieved April 07, 2009,

            from http://www.time-management-guide.com/delegation-skill.html

Workforce Planning Questionnaire. General HR Template. Retrieved April 7, 2009, from

            http://www.unisa.edu.au/hrm/resources/planning/part1.doc