THE MIDDLE EAST POLITICS
Identify Rashidun Caliphs.
The Rashidun Caliphs was a political and spiritual leader who was accountable for the spiritual and moral, welfare of the community (Edwards, 2006).
Name the sources/references/ways guiding a faithful Muslim.
The Koran is a good source of guidance to the faithful Muslim. The parents also play a great role in teaching their children on faithful ways of a Muslim (Edwards, 2006).
Name the five pillars of Islam.
5. Hajj (Edwards, 2006).
What was the Islam’s Golden Age?
The Islam’s Golden Age was an era of civilization and intellectual growth activity that was experienced by Islam (Edwards, 2006).
Identify the political legacies of the Golden Age.
1. The legacy of Iraq’s History
2. The legacy of political violence
3. The legacy of tribalism (Edwards, 2006).
Name the main reasons for the importance of Middle East.
1. Middle East is a major producer of oil in the world
2. A major producer of nuclear weapons (Edwards, 2006).
What was the Millet System?
This term refers to the manner in which Muslim leaders treat their Muslim subjects; it was later used to religious minority groups that were given a set of norms as legal protection by the rulers (Edwards, 2006).
Who were the Janissaries?
The Janissaries were a group of educated young boys that worked for the Ottoman Sultan.
Name the main characteristics describing Suleiman the Magnificent.
1. Military strategist
2. Canny politician
3. Cultivator of the arts (Edwards, 2006).
Name different phases of the Ottoman Empire’s timeline with “the rise” being the first.
5. Dissolution (Edwards, 2006).
Describe the Treaty of Karlowitz and its significance.
The treaty of Karlowitz was the first that the Ottoman Empire had ever to sign when they were defeated. It symbolized the end and a turn around between Europe and the Islam world in terms of war. After this treaty, the Turkish Empire was always on guard, because they were not in a position to overcome any European power (Edwards, 2006).
Describe the Treaty of Kaynarja and its significance.
The treaty of Kaynarjia was signed when Russian defeated the Ottoman Empire in a protracted war that began in 1768 and ended in 1774. In this treaty the Ottomans lost regions occupied by Muslim Turks. This treaty formed the framework for Russo-Ottoman relations for the next 140 years until the break of World War 1 (Edwards, 2006).
Describe the Sunni and Shia differences and its impact
The differences between the Sunni and Shia focus onto two things; the view of one to the history of Muhammad’s family, and how they treat their religious leaders. Sunni and Shia separated 1,400 years ago, soon after Muhammad’s death. Ali his son in law became the one to spread Islam, not all Muslims were for this idea. Shiites believed Ali was the first Imam; Sunnis do not pay attention to any laws of the Imam, and some religious leaders known as the caliphs (Edwards, 2006).
4. Describe the imperial rivalries between the Ottomans and the Safavids.
Because of the rivalry between the ottomans with Safids, wars broke between the two states in 1578 and continued sporadically until the seventeenth century. Because of these wars villages and towns were looted and many people died. During this period generals, ambassadors, statesmen, writers, and poets on both sides maintained close relations which led to substantial numbers of precious manuscripts from Iran to the Ottoman capital (Edwards, 2006).
Describe how nationalism and Islam were used as Muslim responses to the Europeans.
A key problem in Islamic culture, and in Muslim ownership, that had been encouraged by the beginning of European colonialism. By the end of the nineteenth century, the Islamic world had in large part succumbed to Western Christendom-economically, military and even politically. The breakup of the initial Islamic political structure and the fight against European colonialist involvement and law gave both character and a political goal for Muslims during that period (Edwards, 2006).
Explain the successes and failures of the Ottomans in reforming their empire in response to the European’s challenges.
The Ottomans did all they could to overcome industrialization and a fast growing world market by restructuring their own country. It seemed that the restructuring alone was not making any progress, in protecting them from final destruction. Not one of those in power could go past reform to the restructuring of society. Those in authority like the high palace officials such as the Darussaade Aga, used their power and the relative weakness of Sultans, so that any trials to reform the various branches of Ottoman administration were perturbed (Edwards, 2006).
Selim III had tried to restructure along traditional concept not only in the armed forces, but also in the management, financial, and cultural sphere as well. His efforts at producing change produced a violent reaction on the part of the military and religious class, Selim’s reforms were seen as direct threat to their status and entrenched interests. This led to rebellion, and eventually to Selim killing.
Describe the reasons for the emergence of the Eastern Diplomacy and explain how its dynamic played out in the international relations of the time.
There was need for diplomatic cooperation so as to resolve conflicts that had emerged between Middle East and other nations. The super powers made several attempts to build common diplomatic initiatives, therefore demonstrating some willingness to act responsibly so as to progress the peace making process in Middle East.
There were several factors for the Eastern Diplomacy; usual fears of rise of war, the preference of a weaker nation to a cooperative approach, there were no powerful nations that opposed cooperation with the Middle East. These factors led to Eastern Diplomacy even when there was no resemblance and control. The first trial of cooperation with the Arab-Israeli conflict led to endorsement of resolution 242 by the UN Security Council.
Many organizations and people felt the impact of Middle East Diplomacy. These comprised of links with the United Nations, involvement in global businesses, well structured religions and also the influence of the media which was beyond the control of the government (Edwards, 2006).
Edwards, Beverley (2006). Contemporary politics in the Middle East. UK: Polity Press.