The meter, smaller than the wavelength of

The twentieth century’s most important physicist after Albert
Einstein is almost certainly Richard Feynman. After quantum electrodynamics
(QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics, this man
surprised everyone by giving an idea that now it’s time to play with atoms and
molecules, giving a new possibility, this man was Richard Feynman, at the
meeting at the California Institute of Technology in 29 December 1959. This
talk is known under the title there’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom. He revealed
the possibility of direct manipulation of atoms and molocules. Although this
idea sounded like a cock and bull story, it wasn’t possible until 1981, with
the development of the scanning tunnelling microscope that could
“see” individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began and
Physicist Richard Feynman, celled the father of nanotechnology. In order to
understand the unusual world of nanotechnology, we need to get an idea of the
units of measure involved. A centimetre is one-hundredth of a meter, a
millimetre is one-thousandth of a meter, and a micrometer is one-millionth of a
meter, but all of these are still huge compared to the nanoscale. A nanometre
(nm) is one-billionth of a meter, smaller than the wavelength of visible light
and a hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair and this term was coined in
1974 by Norio Taniguichi of Tokyo Science University to describe semiconductor
processes such as thin-film deposition that deal with control on the order of
nano-metres. His definition is a basic definition even today:
“Nano-technology mainly consists of the processing of separation,
consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or one molecule.”
Nano Technology and Sustainable Agriculture No doubt sustainable agriculture
growth totally depends upon the new innovative techniques for example
nanotechnology. The goal of nonmaterial in agriculture is to reduce the amount
of spread chemicals, nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield
through pest and nutrient management. Nanotechnology has the prospective to
improve the agriculture and food industry with novel nano-tools for controlling
the diseases diagnostics and enhancing the capacity of plants to absorb
nutrients among others, the main interest of using nanotechnology in
agriculture includes specific applications like nano-pesticides and
nano-fertilizers to test the products and nutrient level to increase the
production without decontaminating the soil and water and protection against
insect pest and microbial diseases. Why Nano??? It is due to the alteration in
atoms and develops a magnetic power. it is said that the smaller size of
nano-materials possess large surface area and are more active. The magnetic
property of polymer develops due to tellurium atoms; antimony-bismuth; and
sulphur atoms. Moreover, it has been seen that when atoms of do pant and atoms
of europium interact each other then every molecule carry out the magnetic
property. Thus the alter property of nanomaterials is related with more
reactive in the most sectors including in biological process. This ultimate
technology possesses several unique plasmonic, electronic association and
optical properties which are related with the quantum confinement effects, the
alteration of the electronic energy levels may appear due to the surface area
in relation to volume ratio. In modern agriculture, efficiency and sustainable
production are impossible without the use of agrochemicals such as fertilizers
and pesticides. Nano-material not directly catalyze breakdown of waste and
toxic material but also helps to improve efficiency of microorganisms in
degradation of waste and toxic material. Bioremediation uses living organisms
to break down or remove toxins and harmful substances from agricultural soil
and water. (Dixit et al., 2015).

 Potentials of

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 The range of
application area of nano-sensor’s is very vast for example coating, catalysis,
hybrid materials and drug delivery. Nano encapsulation plays a vital
role in the protection of environment by reducing leaching and evaporation of
harmful substances. The worldwide consumption of pesticides is about two
million tonnes per year; out of which 45% is used by Europe alone, 25% is
consumed in the USA and 25% in the rest of the world. Careless and haphazard
pesticide usage increases pathogen and pest resistance, reduces soil
biodiversity, kills useful soil microbes; causes bio magnification of
pesticides, pollinator decline and destroys natural habitat of farmer friends
like birds. The
potential uses and benefits of nanotechnology are enormous. These include insect pest management
via formulations of nano material based pesticides and insecticides, increase
in agricultural productivity using nano particles encapsulated fertilizers for slow
and sustained release of nutrients andwater.
Nano particles mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the
development of insect pest resistant varieties and use of nano material for
preparation of different kinds of biosensors would be useful in remote sensing
devices required for precision farming are some of the boon of this modern,

 Nanosensors are
defined as analytical devices having at least one sensing dimension no greater
than 100 nm, fabricated for monitoring physico-chemical properties in places
otherwise difficult to reach. Nanotubes, nanowires, nanoparticles, or
nanocrystals are often used to optimize the signal transduction deriving by
sensing elements in response to exposure to biological and chemical analytes
having similar size”Nanosensors help farmers in maintaining farm with precise
control and report timely needs of plants.” Thus, it will be mandatory to
address research efforts to the development of nanosensors to aid
decision-making in crop monitoring, accurate analysis of nutrients and
pesticides in soil, or for maximizing the efficiency of water use for a smart
agriculture. Nanosensors find also application in fast, sensitive, and
cost-effective detection of different targets to ensure food quality, safety,
freshness, authenticity, and traceability along the entire food supply chain.
Surely, nanosensors represent one of the emerging technologies challenging the
assessment of food quality and safety, being able to provide smart monitoring
of food components Many intelligent packaging involve nanosensors as monitoring
systems to measure physical parameters (humidity, pH, temperature, light
exposure), to reveal gas mixtures (e.g., oxygen and carbon dioxide), to detect
pathogens and toxins, or to control freshness (e.g., ethanol, lactic acid,
acetic acid) and decomposition (e.g., putrescine, cadaverine).Crop growth and
field conditions like moisture level, temperature, crop nutrient status, plant
diseases, insects,weeds etc cab be monitored through advancement in
nanotechnology. This real-time monitoring is done by employing networks of
wireless nanosensors across cultivated fields, providing data for agromonical
uses like optimal time of planting and harvesting. More precise water delivery
systems are likely to be developed in the near future. These factors are
critical for their development include water storage, in situ water holding
capacity, water absorption efficiency of plants, encapsulated water release on
demand and interaction with field intelligence through distributed nano-sensor
system. Nanotechnology and shelf life of agricultural and food products Most of
the agricultural commodities (fresh vegetables, fruits, meats, egg, milk and
dairy products, many processed foods, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals) are
either perishable or semi-perishable. Research and development in
nanotechnology can help to preserve the freshness, quality and safety. Hydro
gels, nano-catalysis, and nano-zeolites have been reported to enhance the
water-holding capacity of soil), hence acting as a slow release source of
water, reducing the hydric shortage periods during crop season


 Despite a lot of
information about individual nanomaterials are available,but toxicity level of
many NPs is still uncountable and indefinable, thus the application of these
materials is limited due to the lack of knowledge of risk assessments and
effects on human health. Development of comprehensive database and alarm
system, as well as international cooperation for regulation and legislation are
necessary for exploitation of this technologyAgriculture which is the only
provider of human’s food that should produce from transitional and final inputs
with well-known technologies. It is necessary to take modern knowledge in
agriculture. In site of being relative advantage in agriculture process, still
developing countries are suffering from lack of high importance of food