The Institutional Revolution Essay


Alemanismo was a government policy that was used by the Mexican president Miguel Aleman between the years 1946 to 1952. The policy critically stressed the point that, industrialization was the only viable option for Mexico to achieve a rapid economic development after Second World War (Coerver, unit14). On the contrary, cardinismo was another policy that was perceived to lean towards the agrarian industry in Mexico by supporting the land redistribution to the peasant and banking more on the agrarian revolution (Mongabay, 1996). The Cardenismo policy was therefore a Marxist principle of governance and could have worked better in Mexican economic revolution than Alemanismo.


            The Alemanismo policy was marked with a government that preferred capitalism and had a higher vision on the industrialization rather than the agricultural related reforms. The government increased the protection of landowners and even passed a resolution to add the allowed landholding for every landowner (Coerver, Pg 10). Instead of redistributing the land to the peasant farmers on the ground, the policy protected and favored the bourgeoisie thereby increasing capitalist ideologies. Capitalism was responsible for the development of large steel and oil industries that made Mexico a tower of development in the Latin America countries in the 1930s.

 Although the Alemanismo policy was a noble idea geared to industrialization, it overlooked many aspects of the economy (Coerver, unit 14). The government did not control the development, which made it possible for the capitalists to accumulate too much wealth ignoring the masses. This was explained by the economic and social gap that widened between the poor and the rich after the Second World War. Though the economy was growing at a very high rate, the majority did not experience the benefit of the economy “development”. The industries offered no jobs for the masses and the government failed to distribute the wealth creation through out the country (Coerver, unit 14). By urbanizing several towns and ignoring the rural areas, it created a very unequal economy with few haves and majority have-nots. The rural peasants had to migrate to the urban areas to seek jobs for survival. This was caused by abolishment of the funding of communal agricultural lands in favor of large farming capitalists contrary to the case of Cardinesmo in 1930s and 1920s (Coerver,, pg 11). If the government had maintained this funding in support of the poor farmers, the inequality in the wealth creation could not have arised and the rural – urban migration could have been reduced significantly.

The areas of conflict were in the land redistribution policies where Cardenismo became more popular with the majority of population due to the policies designed to protect the workers and peasant farmers. Cardenismo could have worked better than the Alimanismo policies. By redistributing more than 18 million hectares to the poor farmers and seriously undertaking funding to the rural forks (Mongabay, 1996), the policy was geared at curbing the rural to urban migration. Cardenismo was a workable reform policy where communism was more preferred than capitalism and became very preferred and famous in Latin America (coerver, unit 14). Cardenismo policy had earlier geared the country for equality and uniform development in all regions in the country. The policy was very famous with the labor organizations, the church and entered into history books as one of the best policies in Mexico (Coerver, unit14). Their brave actions were very popular with the Mexican people and the intervention of the government in the oil industry regulation gained a lot of praises from the people. This brought out a strained relationship between the U.S and Mexico because many U.S firms were expropriated due to exploitation of workers (Mongabay, 1996). While Alemanismo was more involved in production of goods for the local market, there was no consideration to increase the disposal income of the majority in order for them to absorb the large amount of goods produced. Due to the inability of the majority to purchase the goods due to low disposal income the Mexican markets were saturated with domestic produce. “This led to the saturation of the domestic market due to the low purchasing power of the people. (Coerver, unit 14). Cardenismo focused on; improving the welfare of the local masses for a long time sustainable and uniform development. This aspect lacked in the Alemanismo policy and contributed to the failure of the policy.


The drop of cardinesmo policy in favor of Alemanismo was therefore a lack of foresight on the part of the government leadership regarding the future of the country. The high rate of economic development was short lived due to the oppression of the majority who later joined hands to stage a violent revolution on the government establishment. If however, cardinesmo could have been maintained Mexico could have achieved a consistent, uniformed and stable economic development that could have been sustainable over along time.

                                                         Works Cited

 Coerver, Don.M, Mexico: an encyclopedia of contemporary culture and history. California. ABC-CLIO Inc.  2004.

“Mexico-Cardenismo and the Revolution Rekindled, 1934-40”. 1996. retrieved on 6th April 2010 from,_1934-40.html

 Coerver, Don “Unit 14: The Institutional revolution – Lecture” Modern Mexico 479 (Coerver). TCU. Retrieved 6th April 2010 from



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