Weakness in corporate administration and deficiency of transparence are considered causes of the Asiatic fiscal crisis. ( Wan et al 2010 ) . The corporate dirts happened in the early 2000s urged regulators around the universe to accommodate the medical specialty to unwellness of the planetary fiscal stableness by institute CG reforms. For case, the Combined Code and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act were so introduced and enacted in UK and US severally. As an international fiscal and concern hub, Hong Kong is bound to take its portion of the sweeping impact of the Asiatic fiscal crisis and the dirts. Hong Kong Stock Exchange determined to present the codification of CG effectual from 2005, with similar commissariats on fiscal revelations in the universe. Most of the surveies utilizing US and UK informations indicated that the quality of corporate administration patterns has improved when houses comply with the commissariats of the codification. A study conducted by a research squad headed by Professor Stephen Cheung in Hong Kong generated a consistent consequence with those surveies ; it indicated that the CG criterion of Hong Kong listed houses had been improved evidently in 2005.
2.1.3. Earning Management
While regulators aware the issues about CG after the dirts, the assurance of investors around the universe who rely on the reported net incomes on the fiscal statement to do their investing determinations have been significantly shaken. Net incomes is ever the most important index to measure how a house performs. EM refers to use of a house ‘s net incomes through direct or indirect accounting methods to accomplish a coveted degree and that does non reflect the economic world to misdirect FS users about the corporate public presentation or deriving self-interest. In short, the patterns of EM deter the credibleness of fiscal coverage. There is dozenss of empirical researches grounds that good CG better the transparence of the quality fiscal coverage which provides more decision-useful information to investors irrespective of the geographical location of the listed company. Some of GCG mechanisms include the being of independent board of managers, audit commission, no CEO dichotomy, no Top Share ( commanding stockholder ) , and stockholder ‘s alliance in order to confront commanding stockholder. ( Werner R. Murhadi 2009 ) .
2.1.4. The alone characteristics of Hong Kong Firms.
A planetary codification of CG should non be applied as a criterion among the universe attributed to the alone scenes of each legal power. It is of import for regulators and analysts to understand the unique characteristics and regional conditions affect the inducement of pull offing net incomes and the coverage quality. Therefore, Most of the researches have done to look into the relationship between the CG patterns and EM with US informations, merely a few O f them analyses about the issues in other parts. An premise that a same consequence will be concluded when analysing HK information is dubious. The widely acknowledged household ownership concentration feature of HK listed houses is still considered as the major subscriber of the failure of CG even after the debut of the codification. See the “ ballot use ” done by PCCW and the matter of Citic Pacific in 2009.
2.2 Literature reappraisal
The research paper which examine whether the revelation of Corporate Governance Structures affect the market rating of net incomes surprises and houses ‘ net incomes direction, Jui-Chin Chang and Huey-Lian Sun ( 2010 ) , suggested that the effectivity of corporate administration in supervising net incomes direction is improved after the mandated revelation. This determination is consistent with the consequence of the research on CG and net incomes prognosiss accuracy which supported that it is effectual to heighten the quality of fiscal revelation by revising the Malayan Code on Corporate Governance to promote public companies to implement good administration patterns. ( Ahmad-Zaluki et al 2010 ) .
However, Davies and Schlitzer ( 2008 ) in their paper raised the inquiry about the practicality of an international ‘ one size fits all ” corporate administration codification of best pattern and the consequence of the paper implied that the credence of a planetary corporate administration codification is limited due to the versions in the concern environment. Ching, M.L.K. et Al. ( 2002 ) in their research contended that CG mechanisms and monitoring and inadvertence activities will impact the usage of EM, and the importance of these factors varies across houses and national legal powers. Because CG, the legal environment, and monitoring activities are far different in Hong Kong than in the U.S. , research surveies utilizing American informations have limited relevancy for HK.
A big proportion of HK listed houses are controlled by households. When most of the consequences of empirical researches supported the positive association between the CG mechanism and houses ‘ net incomes quality, the alone characteristics of Hong Kong is non being considered in those researches. A rare research done by Jaggi, B. , et Al. ( 2009 ) used samples before the acceptance of codification of corporate administration and happen that a higher proportion of independent corporate boards of HK houses is associated with more effectual monitoring to restrain EM by discouraging directors from pull stringsing the reported net incomes ; therefore the net incomes quality is expected to be high despite differences in institutional environments. However, it is non the instance of which the houses are family-controlled, either through ownership concentration or the presence of household members on corporate boards.
While infinite surveies have already done with informations of parts other than HK about the association between CG and EM, some of them have besides emphasized on the individuality of household ownership concentration in Asiatic parts. This survey is done for the intent of measuring the effectivity of the Code of Corporate Governance Practices effectual from 2005 on cut downing EM patterns and bettering net incomes quality of HK Firms. Focus on the singularity of the Hong Kong Firms ‘ ownership construction to look into whether compulsory revelation of corporate administration structures improves the quality of fiscal information of Hong Kong family-controlled houses.
2.4 Statement of hypothesis
2.4.1 Indentifying Corporate administration
The research generated by Dey, ( 2008 ) examined that different states have different corporate administration construction. She considered 12 variables of corporate administration to mensurate different corporate administration construction, such as the effectivity of the audit commission and dichotomy of CEOs and so on. To find corporate administration, we would utilize five variables including a majority-independent audit commission, a majority-independent board, fiscal professional holding sufficient accounting experience on the commission, large 4 hearers and the separation CEO and chair place.
2.4.2 Audit commission and gaining quality
Harmonizing to Hong Kong Exchange and glade limited ( HKEX ) , after the acceptance of codification of corporate administration effectual that is in 2005, it is a must for Hong Kong listed companies to set up an audit commission, consisting non-executive manager ( NED ) and holding at least three members. Based on the research of Bedard, and Courteau ( 2001 ) , the higher the per centum of independent non-executive manager that are non directors in other houses, the higher the earning quality is. Therefore, the hypothesis we develop should be:
H1: There is positive relationship between the being of a majority-independent audit commission and gaining quality after the codification
2.4.3. Independent board of manager and earning direction
Harmonizing to Liu and Lu ( 2007 ) , they found that when fixing fiscal statement, the board of manager can assist to supervise and forestall commanding stockholder as this act may do harm to the other stockholder. Besides, the Hong Kong boards of manager were by codification at least three NED members every bit good.
H2: There is positive relationship between the proportion of Independent non-executive managers on the board and gaining quality after the codification.
2.4.4. CEO dichotomy and earning direction
Harmonizing to R. Murhadi, Werner. Dr ( 2009 ) , he found that if there is any occupation dichotomy, it was less effectual and strongly act upon higher degree of discretional accrual. Anderson et Al. ( 2003 ) found that net incomes informativeness is positively associated with houses holding separated CEO and chair places
H3: The being of CEO dichotomy positively influences the degree of net incomes direction after the codification.
2.4.4 Large 4 hearers and gaining direction
The old research done by Klein ( 2003 ) found that Large 4 hearers may switch some of their duty of supervising fiscal describing to houses ‘ audit commissions after SOX. Therefore, there may be difference between discretional accumulations and Big 4 hearer in the before period of SOX.
H4: There is a negative relation between gaining direction and proportion of Large 4 hearers after the codification.
2.4.5 Experts in audit commission and gaining direction
The Code in Hong Kong required that among the three members, it should include at least an independent NED with sufficient and appropriate fiscal experience. Xie, Davison, and DaDalt ( 2003 ) use pre-SOX samples to look into that audit commission members holding fiscal experience/background negatively influence discretional accumulations.
H5: There is a negative relation between discretional accumulations and the existent of fiscal experts on audit commissions after the codification.
2.4.6. household control and gaining direction
Due to the different outlooks sing the consequence of household control on net incomes direction, Jaggi-Leung usage pre-code sample to demo that an addition in the proportion of outside managers to beef up board monitoring is improbable to be effectual in family-controlled houses. The per centum of NED on the board to a entire figure of managers is counted 20 % as cut-off point.
H6: There is a negative relation between the existent of household ownership control and net incomes quality after the codification.
3.1 Sample aggregation
It is to seek the WiseNews Database and HKEX website to roll up the informations for all Hong Kong Listed Firms in all industry for old ages before and after acceptance of codification which is accounting period of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 severally.
3.2 Research Design
By utilizing the fiscal informations examined from the above database, it is decided to research all houses excepting Bankss, insurance and trusts companies as they manage gaining obtaining different inducements and chances. ( Peasnell et al, 2000 ) For proving net incomes direction, Dechow et al. , 1995 suggested to utilize modified Joness theoretical account to mensurate discretional accumulations. However, based on Kothari, Leone and Wasley ( 2005 ) , in add-on to the modified theoretical account, they use return on assets as one of variable so as to gauge accumulations more accurately. It is cross-sectional arrested development by utilizing two-digit SIC codification, so happen out the estimated coefficient by the undermentioned expression: