The age of the patient. Most of

The brain has
billions of nerve fibers that keep firing small electrical charges in an
orderly and coordinated fashion so that all organs’ functions are well synchronized.
Occasionally, these nerve fibers can discharge abnormally when there is excess electrical
activity leading to a seizure (Schachter, 2009).   When the
seizure occurs more than once, then it is diagnosed as a disorder and
medication is instituted. The seizure can be caused by natural factors such as increased
genetic susceptibility or such problems as electrolyte imbalance in the body or
could be provoked by pathological issues such as infections in the brain or
even a cerebrovascular accident among others.

According to Engel (2006), they are classified into partial or generalized
based on the part of the brain from which the errant electrical activity
originated. The main distinguishing clinical symptom between the two is the
accompanying loss of consciousness in generalized seizure. However, partial
seizure can also lead to unconsciousness in which case it is referred to as
Complex partial seizure. Other classifications based on clinical presentations
are Absence seizure, Myoclonus and tonic-clonic which are actually subtypes of
generalized seizure.

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disorders can have negative implications on patients in terms of behavior change
(Jacoby, Snape & Baker, 2005)
e.g patients having depression and occupations (some jobs like driving) might
not be awarded to such patients and therefore it is imperative that treatment
for these conditions is started early enough.


In most cases,
drugs are prescribed only after a second attack of a seizure (McPhee, Papadakis, & Tierney, 2010) and the
prescription is dependent on the type of seizure and age of the patient. Most
of the seizures can be controlled effectively using a single drug thus reducing
non-compliance. For partial seizures, the choice of medications include
Carbamazepine, phenytoin, Lamotrigine and Sodium Valproate. In the management
of absence seizures the common drugs used are Sodium valproate, lamotrigine and

The myoclonic
seizure type is treated using Sodium valproate, lamotrigine and clonazepam
while for the last type; generalized tonic-clonic, most of the drugs used are
the same ones used for most of the above types and they include sodium
valproate, phenytoin, lamotrigine and carbamazepine. As evidenced above, the
drugs used overlap some types of seizures. Carbamazepine is used as the first
line for partial and generalized seizures except for absence and myoclonus


Just like with
every other medication, age is an important factor in determining the effects
of drugs on the body. Patients in different age groups have varying degrees of
pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drugs. Variations in hepatic
metabolism of drugs and eliminations can either increase or decrease the
duration of drug action and side-effects. According to French
and Staley, (2012), also patients in the extremes of ages might e.g the
very young children might require different drug formulations which affect the
drugs bioavailability.


methods that can be employed to reduce side effects include lowering dosages of
medications Cramer, Mintzer, Wheless, &
Mattson, (2010). Other specific effects such as folate deficiency due to
phenytoin can be reduced by giving patients folate supplements. Lifestyle
modifications like abstaining from alcohol while on medications can help reduce
side effects associated with the medications since alcohol interferes with the metabolic
pathway of most of the drugs according to Hillbom,
Pieninkeroinen, & Leone, (2003).

In conclusion, seizure disorders are chronic neurological
diseases that can affect people of all ages and most can be managed effectively.
Those afflicted should be enabled to have normal social lives without