Software Projects Essay

To develop a mini-project following the 12 exercises listed below. 1. To develop a problem statement.
2. Develop an IEEE standard SRS document. Also develop risk management and project plan (Gantt chart).
3. Identify Use Cases and develop the Use Case model.
4. Identify the business activities and develop an UML Activity diagram. 5. Identity the conceptual classes and develop a domain model with UML Class diagram. 6. Using the identified scenarios find the interaction between objects and represent them using UML Interaction diagrams.

7. Draw the State Chart diagram.
8. Identify the User Interface, Domain objects, and Technical services. Draw the partial layered, logical architecture diagram with UML package diagram notation. 9. Implement the Technical services layer.

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10. Implement the Domain objects layer.
11. Implement the User Interface layer.
12. Draw Component and Deployment diagrams.
Suggested domains for Mini-project.
1. Passport automation system.
2. Book bank
3. Exam Registration
4. Stock maintenance system.
5. Online course reservation system
6. E-ticketing
7. Software personnel management system
8. Credit card processing
9. e-book management system
10. Recruitment system
11. Foreign trading system
12. Conference Management System
13. BPO Management System
Suggested SoftwareTools
ArgoUML, Eclipse IDE, Visual Paradigm, Visual case, and Rational Suite

Ex.No:1A) INTRODUCTION TO SOFTWARE ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES
Aim:

To study the basics of Software Engineering Techniques

Project planning:
The objective of software project planning is to provide a framework that enables the manager to make reasonable estimates of resources cost and schedule. The first activity in software project planning is the
determination of software scope. Software scope describes the data and control to be processed, function, performance, constraints, interfaces and reliability. The second software-planning task is estimation of the resources required to accomplish the software development effort.

Software cost and effort estimation is an important factor to be considered. Variables like human, technical, environmental, and political will affect the ultimate cost of software and effort applied to develop it.

Software Requirements Analysis:
Requirements Analysis is a software engineering task that bridges the gap between system level requirement engineering and software. Requirements engineering activities result in the specification of software’s operational characteristics such as data and functional behavior. Requirements analysis allows the software Engineer to refine the software allocation and build models of the data, functional and behavioral domain that will be treated by software. Data Modeling:

The data model consist of three interrelated pieces of information the data objects, the attributes that describes the data object and the relationships that connect data objects to one another. A data object is the representation of almost any composite information that must be understood by software. composite information means something that has number of different properties or attributes. A data object can be an external entity, a thing, an occurrence or event, a role, an organizational unit, a place or a structure.

The attributes define the properties of data objects and take on one of three different characteristics. They can be used to name an instance of the data object, describes the instance or make reference to another instance in another table.

Data objects are connected to one another in different ways. Data model must be capable of representing the number of occurrences of object in a given relationship.

Software Testing:
Software testing is the critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification design and code generation. Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error. The objective is to design test the systematically uncover different classes of errors and to do so with minimum amount of time and effort.

Different types of testing approaches used are black box testing and white box testing. Black box test are used to demonstrate that the s/w functions are operational that is input is properly accepted and output is correctly produced.

White box testing of software is predicated on a close examination of procedural detail. Logical paths through the software are tested by providing test cases that exercise specifies sets of condition and loops. The status of the program may be examined at various points to determine if the expected status corresponds to the actual status.

Software Debugging:
It is an exercise to connect manifestation of the error and the internal cause of the error. Debugging
?

techniques include:

Break points

Break point is a computer program at which execution can be

suspended to permit manual or automated monitoring of program performance or results. ?

Desk checking

Desk checking is a technique in which code listings, test results

or other documentation are visually examined, usually by the person who generated them, to identify errors, violations of development standards or other problems. ?

Dumps

Dumps display some aspect of a computer program’s execution

state, usually the contents of internal storage or registers. ?

Single-step operation-

In this debugging technique a single computer instruction, is

executed in response to an external signal.
?

Traces

A record of the execution of computer program, showing the

sequence of instructions executed, the names and values of variables or both.

Result:
Thus the basics of Software Engineering Techniques are studied.

Ex.No:1B)

FUNDAMENTALS OF RATIONAL ROSE SOFTWARE

Aim: To know about the fundamentals of Rational Rose Software. Introduction:
Models are constructed using views to depict different perspectives and diagrams to depict a system’s building blocks. A model is a simplification of reality or the blue print of the system. An Architectural view can be defined as a simplified description of a system from a particular perspective or vantage point, covering particular concerns and omitting that are not relevant to this perspective. Diagrams are the means by which we can visualize collections of these abstractions. Visual modeling:

In the world today, we have business processes and computer systems. As software professionals our challenge lies in mapping the two. That is where modeling comes in. Modeling involves capturing the important real world things and mapping these things to computer systems. Unified Modeling Language:

The Language of visual modeling is the UML. It can be used to visualize, specify, construct and document the artifacts of software system. It is a standard language that may be understood by everyone dealing with the project, – customers, domain experts, analyst, designers, implementers, testers, trainers and so on.

Views:

A View is a perspective of the model that is meaningful to specific stakeholders. When

you construct models, you can choose to create only those views significant for that iteration of development and of value to the project stakeholders. In Rose, you can create the following views: Use-case View, Logical View, Process View, Component View, Deployment View Logical View

Analysts/Designers
Structure

Implementation
View- Programmers
Software
Management
Use-case
View
End user

Logical View
System Integrators
Performance,
Scalability,
Throughput

Deployment View
System Engineering
System Topology,
Delivery, Installation,
Communication

Use-Case View:
The Use-Case View is the heart of the other views because it specifies what the system should do.
?

Includes the use-case model, which represents the system’s intended functions and environment as seen by its users.

?

Serves as a contract between customer and developer.

?

Is essential to analysis and design and test activities.

?

Includes use-case diagram, use-case flow of events, and supplemental documentation. It can also include activity diagrams.

?

Is the heart of other views because it represents the required behavior of the system.

Logical View:
The Logical View supports the functional requirements of the system. ?

Supports the functional requirements of the system, meaning the services the system should provide its users.

?

Includes use-case realizations, class and interaction diagrams. It can also include state chart and activity diagrams.

Process View:
The Process View addresses the performance, scalability and throughput of the system. ?

Includes the threads and processes that form the system’s concurrency and synchronization mechanisms.

?

Addresses the performance, scalability, and throughput of the system.

?

Is not necessary for a single processing environment.

Component View (Implementation View):
The Component View addresses ease of development, management of software assets, reuse, and sub-contracting off-the-shelf components.
?

Describes the organization of static software modules(source code, data files, components, executables and so on) in terms of packaging ad layering and configuration management.

Deployment View:
The Deployment View addresses issues like deployment, installation and performance. ?

Is used for distributed systems only and shows one deployment diagram.

?

Shows how the various executables and other runtime components are mapped to the underlying platforms or computing nodes.

?

Addresses issues like deployment, installation and performance.

Diagrams:
A Diagram is a graphical means to view a system’s parts including classes, interfaces, collaborations, generalizations, and associations.
Using Rational Rose the following diagrams can be drawn to facilitate the development process. ?

Use-case diagrams

?

Activity diagrams

?

Interaction diagrams (collaboration and sequence)

?

Class diagrams

?

State chart diagrams

?

Component diagrams

?

Deployment diagrams

Stakeholders:
?

Software architect – Responsible for development of the entire project and needs to understand all aspects of the system.

?

System Analyst – Identifies functionality (Actors and use cases) of the system based on the user requirements.

?

Designer – Builds the system to meet the specification identified by the analyst, generates the software.

?

End-User – ensures that the design of the system meets his/her requirements.

Rational Rose Interface:
The Rational rose interface includes the following:
?
?
?
?
?
?

Browser
Diagram window
Diagram tool bar
Documentation window
Log window
Options window

Browser:
The browser allows textually viewing and navigating the views and diagrams in Rational Rose. It displays the elements that are modeled.

Diagram window:
The diagram window allows creating and updating graphical views of the current model.

Diagram tool bar:
The diagram toolbar includes the elements to build a diagram. Each diagram’s toolbar is unique to that diagram. It is active only when the diagram is displayed.

Documentation Window:
The documentation window is used to create, view or modify text that explains a selected item within a diagram.

Log Window:
The Log window reports progress, results, and errors. For E.g. Code generation commands post progress and error messages to this window.

Options Window:
The Options window is used to set all of the faults for modeling. It applies new settings to future additions made to a diagram.
Result:Hence the fundamentals of Rational Rose Software are studied.

Ex.No:2A) PROBLEM ANALYSIS AND PROJECT PLANNING
Aim:
The basic aim of planning is to look into future, identify the activities that need to be done complete the project successfully and plan the scheduling and resource allocation for these activities. Description:

Planning is the most important management activity. The input to the planning activity is the requirements specification, the output of this space is the project plan, which is a document describing the different aspects of the plan. The project plan is the instrument in driving development process to remaining phases.

Issues of project plan:
The major issues the project plan addresses are:
1. Cost Estimation
2. Schedule and milestones
3. Personnel Plan
4. Software Quality Assurance Plans
5. Configuration Management Plans
6. Project Monitoring Plans
7. Risk Management

Documents:
1. Cost Estimation
2. Schedule
3. Personnel Plan

Result:
Thus the project-planning phase of software development is studied

Ex.No:2B)

RISK MANAGEMENT

Aim:
To study the steps involved in risk management.
Risk:
Risk refers to uncertain future conditions or circumstances that may adversely impact a project if they occur. A risk represents the possibility, not the certainty; of a future event affecting the success of a project. Risk is inherent in all projects. By effectively managing risk, the project team can reduce the likelihood of occurrence of an adverse event and the impact on the project should such an event occur.

Risk Management:
Risk management is a repeatable, structured process that identifies and systematically addresses risks to minimize their affect on projects.
Purpose of Risk Management
A proactive project team tries to resolve potential problems before they occur. This is the art of risk management. The purpose of risk management is to identify the risk factors for a project and to then establish a risk
management plan that will minimize the probability that risk events may occur and that, should they occur, their impact on the project will be minimized. Implementation and Execution

Step 1: Risk Management Planning
Risk Management Planning is concerned with deciding how to approach and plan risk management activities for a project. The Risk Management Plan is based on identification of risk events followed by risk quantification, response development (mitigation), and response control (contingency planning and execution). Risk Management is an iterative process that is initiated at the start of the project and will continue throughout the project lifecycle. The project team should consider both the organization’s and the project stakeholders’ tolerance for risk. Some organizations have very high tolerance for schedule or cost overruns, while others have very little.

The key factors of risk identification, quantification, response, and control should be actively managed by the Project Manager.
Risk review should be an item on the project team meeting agendas. It may also be necessary to convene specific working sessions to assess and manage risk. Step 2: Risk Identification
At project inception, initial risk identification should be performed. This should be done by reviewing risks identified (or encountered but not identified) on other projects and by brainstorming with the project team and key stakeholders.

It is essential that customers/users/stakeholders be involved in the risk identification process, as well as members of the project team. This will serve to reinforce the concept that risk is inherent

in all projects and that proactively identifying and managing potential risks will increase the likelihood of project success. At this point, not all details of the project may be known, and these unknowns may constitute potential risks to the project.

All potential risks should be reviewed by the project team and key
stakeholders to assess probability of occurrence and impact. The Risk Management Matrix can be used for recording and analysis of all identified risks. All identified potential risk events that are deemed to be relevant to the project are to be recorded using the Risk Management Matrix. The risk matrix maintains a record of “resolved” risks as well as “current” risks. Note that should a previously unidentified risk event occur at any point during the project life cycle, this event should be immediately recorded on the Risk Management Matrix.

Risk identification must include two elements:- The Risk Condition, the cause of a risk event, and the Risk Consequence, the effect of the risk event on the project. It may be helpful to define risk conditions as one of three types: ? Business Risk – A business condition that may arise that would impact the project. Examples may include introduction of a competitor’s product, a merger, serious business downturn or upswing, reorganization, etc.

? Technology Risk – Introduction of new technology to the organization. This may include system components that are being developed by outside vendors. ? Project Risk
– All of the things that can happen on a project, including such factors as personnel turnover, poorly understood requirements, inadequate project plan, insufficient project budget, work outside the project scope, scope creep, etc. The risk consequence should define the effect, or “impact,” on the project in terms of the following three variables:

? The Project Scope – Impact on the ability to deliver all or some of the defined functions and features of the product or the performance attributes that have been specified, either explicitly or implicitly, for the product.

? The Project Cost
– Impact on the ability to deliver the product within the specified project budget.
? The Project Schedule – Impact on the ability to deliver the product within the defined time frame for the project.
Should the project team be unable to define risk consequences for any of the
above three items, it should be assumed that the identified future event does not pose a risk to the project. The following table may prove helpful in analyzing risks.

IMPACT
SCOPE
COST
SCHEDULE
TYPE
Business
X
Technology
X
X
Project
Risk identification is an ongoing process to document the future risk events. Any new or changed risks should be incorporated into the analysis from a project’s start through its completion. All risks are to be recorded on the Risk Matrix.

In addition to project inception, Risk Identification should take place on a formal basis at the beginning of each major project phase or iteration and any time a significant change to the project occurs, such as a scope change or changes in key project personnel. Step 3: Risk Analysis

Risk qualification, quantification and analysis is an ongoing process which evaluates risks to assess the range of possible project outcomes. The evaluation may be conducted as individual assessments by assigned team members with the results presented to the project team and stakeholders for discussion and concurrence, or as working sessions with key project team members where a joint assessment is recorded.

For each risk the Project Team should address the following sections of the Risk ? Identify risk probability
? Identify risk areas of impact
? Calculate Risk Exposure
? Prioritize risks
Step 4: Risk Response Planning
Risk response is the action plan to eliminate, reduce, or minimize the probability of a risk event occurring and/or the impact of a risk event should it occur. The output from this activity is a Risk Mitigation Plan that contains a set of actions directed at minimizing the potential occurrence or impact of risks on a project and a Risk Contingency Plan, to be activated should the risk event occur. For risks requiring response, there are two strategies that are considered: Mitigation, a pre-emptive strategy, is concerned with minimizing the threat posed by a risk by removing the risk, reducing the risk, or avoiding the risk; e.g., benchmarks for performance, start early, provide training, implement a formal change management process, set expectations, involve customer in early planning sessions. Risk warning flags or risk outcomes can be a part of the mitigation plan.

Risk mitigation strategies include the following:
? Acceptance
? Avoidance
? Reduction
? Transference
Contingency strategy deals with the impact of a risk by creating a contingency plan that will be activated should the conditions or warning flags occur, e.g., exceeded expected resolution date, delay schedules, team is working extended hours, increased staff needs, modified scope. Contingency plans are necessary for all project risks, including those that have mitigation plans. They focus on the consequences, when the risk event has occurred. For each risk, the Project Manager should assign an owner responsible for developing and maintaining its risk mitigation and contingency plans. The project work plan should contain specific tasks with dates for the development of mitigation and contingency plans for all risks. Step 5: Risk Monitoring and Control

The Project Manager should implement and direct mitigation actions, monitor
the mitigation actions to determine their effectiveness, and revise the mitigation strategies as needed. The project manager should:

? Implement the Risk Mitigation Plan
? Assess Mitigation Effectiveness
? Reassess Exposure
The Project Manager should address probability of risks and impact changes, as well as any new risks that are identified. Newly identified risks should be subjected to the same risk assessment and management process.

Risks that have been successfully mitigated should be “resolved” and that status should be reflected in the Risk Management Matrix and on project reports. Successful mitigation means reducing Risk Exposure to a level where the risk is no longer deemed by the project team to be among the project’s “Top Risks.”

Step 6: Risk Review and Reporting
New risks that have been identified and old risks that have changed within the reporting period should be communicated in project team meetings and should be included in all Project Status reporting.

Risk changes will include the following:
? Successful mitigation, resulting in retiring or resolving a risk. ? Occurrence of a risk event, either previously identified or unidentified. ? Activation of a contingency plan or de-activation of that plan. ? Re-prioritization of “Top Risks” based on planned risk identification, risk mitigation or changing project conditions.

Result:
Hence the steps involved in risk management are studied.

Ex.No:3

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

Aim:
The basic aim of software requirement analysis is to properly understand the basic needs of software required developing a system. Problem analysis and requirement specification activities overlap with movement both activities to other.

Requirements Analysis
Requirements Analysis is the process of understanding the customer needs and expectations from a proposed system or application and is a well-defined stage in the Software Development Life Cycle model.

Requirements are a description of how a system should behave or a description of system properties or attributes. It can alternatively be a statement of ‘what’ an application is expected to do. Given the multiple levels of interaction between users, business processes and devices in global corporations today, there are simultaneous and complex requirements from a single application, from various levels within an organization and outside it as well. The Software Requirements Analysis Process covers the complex task of eliciting and documenting the requirements of all these users, modeling and analyzing these requirements and documenting them as a basis for system design. A dedicated and specialized Requirements Analyst is best equipped to handle the job. The Requirements Analysis function may also fall under the scope of Project Manager, Program Manager or Business Analyst, depending on the organizational hierarchy.

Software Requirements Analysis and Documentation Processes are critical to software project success. Requirements Engineering is an emerging field, which deals with the systematic handling of requirements.

Steps in the Requirements Analysis Process
I. Fix system boundaries
This initial step helps in identifying how the new application integrates with the business processes, how it fits into the larger picture and what its scope and limitations will be.

II. Identify the customer
In more recent times there has been a focus on identifying who the ‘users’ or ‘customers’ of an application are. Referred to broadly as the ‘stake holders’, these indicate the group or groups of people who will be directly or indirectly impacted by the new application. By defining in concrete terms who the intended user is, the Requirements Analyst knows in advance where he has to look for answers. The Requirements Elicitation Process should focus on the wish list of this defined group to arrive at a valid requirements list.

III. Requirements elicitation
Information is gathered from the multiple stakeholders identified. The Requirements Analyst draws out from each of these groups what their requirements from the application are and what they expect the application to accomplish. Considering the multiple stakeholders involved, the list of requirements gathered in this manner could run into pages. The level of detail of the requirements list is based on the number and size of user groups, the degree of complexity of business processes and the size of the application.

a) Problems faced in Requirements Elicitation
?
?
?
?
?

Ambiguous understanding of processes
Inconsistency within a single process by multiple users
Insufficient input from stakeholders
Conflicting stakeholder interests
Changes in requirements after project has begun
A Requirements Analyst has to interact closely with multiple work-groups, often with conflicting goals, to arrive at a bona fide requirements list. Strong communication and people skills along with sound programming
knowledge are prerequisites for an expert Requirements Analyst.

b) Tools used in Requirements Elicitation
Traditional methods of Requirements Elicitation included stakeholder interviews and focus group studies. Other methods like flowcharting of business processes and the use of existing documentation like user manuals, organizational charts, process models and systems or process specifications, on-site analysis, interviews with end-users, market research and competitor analysis were also used extensively in Requirements Elicitation. However current research in Software Requirements Analysis Process has thrown up modern tools that are better equipped to handle the complex and multilayered process of Requirements Elicitation. Some of the current Requirements Elicitation tools in use are: ? Prototypes

? Use cases
? Data flow diagrams
? Transition process diagrams
? User interfaces

IV. Requirements Analysis Process
Once all stakeholder requirements have been gathered, a structured analysis of these can be done after modeling the requirements. Some of the Software Requirements Analysis techniques used are requirements animation, automated reasoning, knowledge-based critiquing, consistency checking, and analogical and case-based reasoning.

V. Requirements Specification
Requirements, once elicited, modeled and analyzed should be documented in clear, unambiguous terms. A written requirements document is critical so that its circulation is possible among all stakeholders including the client, user-groups, the development and testing teams. Current requirements engineering practices reveal that a well-designed, clearly documented Requirements Specification is vital and serves as

? Base for validating the stated requirements and resolving stakeholder
conflicts, if any ? Contract between the client and development team
? Basis for systems design for the development team
? Benchmark for project managers for planning project development lifecycle and goals ? Source for formulating test plans for QA and testing teams ? Resource for requirements management and requirements tracing ? Basis for evolving requirements over the project life span Software requirements specification involves scoping the requirements so that it meets the customer’s vision. It is the result of collaboration between the end-user who is often not a technical expert, and a Technical/Systems Analyst, who is likely to approach the situation in technical terms. The software requirements specification is a document that lists out stakeholders’ needs and communicates these to the technical community that will design and build the system. The challenge of a well-written requirements specification is to clearly communicate to both these groups and all the sub-groups within. To overcome this, Requirements Specifications may be documented separately as

? User Requirements – written in clear, precise language with plain text and use cases, for the benefit of the customer and end-user
? System Requirements – expressed as a programming or mathematical model, addressing the Application Development Team and QA and Testing Team.
Requirements Specification serves as a starting point for software, hardware and database design. It describes the function (Functional and Non-Functional specifications) of the system, performance of the system and the operational and user-interface constraints that will govern system development.

VI. Requirements Management
Requirements Management is the comprehensive process that includes all aspects of software requirements analysis and additionally ensures verification, validation and trace ability of requirements. Effective requirements management practices guarantee that all system requirements are stated unambiguously, that omissions and errors are corrected and that evolving specifications can be incorporated later in the project lifecycle.

Result:
Thus the requirement analyses of software development are studied.

Ex.No:4

DATA MODELING

Aim:
To study the concepts of data modeling.
Data Model:
A Data model is an abstract representation of a system constructed to understand the system before building or modifying it. It is a simple presentation of reality. It provides the blue prints of the system. The models are built to provide better understanding of the system that is being developed. The models of complex systems are built to comprehend the entire system. Data modeling is necessary for communication among project teams.

Advantages of Data Modeling:
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

Help in visualizing a system as it is or as it is expected.
Permit us to specify the structure or behavior of a system and it allows mastering the complex system.
Provide us a template that guide us in constructing a system and used to generate usable work products.
Document the decisions that are made.
Help us to capture and precisely state requirements and domain knowledge so
that all stake holders may understand and agree on them.
Give us an idea to carry out certain activities such as organize, find, filter, retrieve, examine and edit information about large systems.
Provide guidelines to explore multiple solutions economically. Enable us to capture design decisions in a mutable form separate from the requirements. Enhance and reinforce learning and training and make manipulation of model easy. The total cost involved in the modeling analysis is much lower than the cost of similar experimentation conducted with a real system.

Principles of modeling:
?
?
?
?

Choose the right models
Every model may be expressed at different levels of precision. The best models are connected to reality.
No single model is sufficient.

A Modeling Language must include:
?
?
?

Model elements – fundamental modeling concepts and semantics. Notation – Visual rendering of model elements.
Guidelines – expression of usage within the trade.

Data Modeling provides
?
?
?
?

Clarity
Familiarity
Maintenance
Simplification

Visual Modeling:
Visual modeling is defined as mapping the real world process of a computer system with a graphical representation or blue print. It captures essential parts of the system. It is a communication tool, which is used to analyze the design of our application. Advantages:

? Captures business process
? Enhance communication
? Manage complexity
? Define architecture
? Permits reuse
Static and Dynamic Data Modeling:
Static model: It can be viewed as an image of system parameters at rest or specific point in time. Static models are required to represent the structural or static aspect of a system. Static models presume stability and an absence of change in data over time. E.g. Class Diagram Dynamic Model: It can be viewed as a collection of procedures or behaviors that taken together reflect the behavior of a system over a period of time. Dynamic relationships show how the business objects interact for performing tasks. Examples are Interaction diagrams and Activity diagrams.

Result:
Thus the data modeling concepts are studied

Ex. No: 5

UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE

Aim:
To get a detailed descriptional study of Unified Modeling language

Definition:
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a graphical language for visualizing, specifying, constructing and documenting the artifacts of a software intensive system. UML provides a vocabulary and the rules for communication and focus on conceptual and physical representation of the system. So it is a Modeling Language. The UML gives a standard way to write a system’s blueprints, covering conceptual things, such as classes written in a specific programming language, database schemas and reusable software components.

UML includes both graphical and textual representation. It makes easy to visualize the system and for better understanding. UML addresses the specification of all the important analysis, design and implementation decisions and developing and deploying a software- intensive system. UML models can be directly connected to a variety of programming languages. And it is sufficiently expressive and free from any ambiguity to permit the direct execution of models, the simulation of systems and the instrumentation of running systems. UML produces variety of documents in addition to raw executable code; the artifacts include Requirements, Architecture, Design, Source code, Project Plans, Test, Prototypes, and Releases.The UML may be used with any process. Although, it is generally assumed that the process is architecture centric, use case driven, iterative and incremental.

The UML combines the best of the best from Data modeling concepts (E-R Diagrams), Business Modeling (workflow), Object Modeling and Component Modeling

UML Usage:
UML has been effectively used in domains such as: EIS(Enterprise Information System), Banking and financial services, Telecommunications, Transportation, Defense/Aerospace, Retail, Medical, Electronics, Scientific and Distributed Web-based services. It can be used with all processes, throughout the development life cycle and across different implementation technologies.

UML Architecture:
Architecture is used to manage different viewpoints and hence control the iterative and incremental development of systems throughout its lifecycle. Each of the above 5 views can standalone so that the different stakeholder can focus on the issues of the systems architecture that most concerns them. The five views interact with one another. MODELING A SYSTEM’S ARCHITECTURE

Vocabulary,Functionality
System Assembly
Implementation
View

Design View

management

Use Case
View
Process View

configuration

Deployment
View

Performance,

System Topology, distribution,

Scalability, throughput

Delivery and Installation

UML Primary goals:
The Primary goals in the design of UML are:
?

Provide users a ready-to-use, expressive visual modeling language so that they can develop and exchange meaningful models.

?

Provide extensibility and specialization mechanisms to extend the core concepts.

?

Provide the required formal basics for understanding the modeling Language.

?

Encourage the growth of the OO tools market.

?

Support development concepts at higher level.

?

Integrate best practices and methodologies.

?

Be independent of particular programming languages and development processes.

UML Concepts:
The UML may be used to visually model
?

The interaction of the application with the outside world

?

The behavior of the system

?

The architecture of the enterprise

?

The components in the system.

The UML can be used to support the entire lifecycle
?

See the interaction with the outside world in use-case diagrams.

?

Visualize object interaction in sequence and collaboration diagrams.

?

Look at the structure of the system by examining class diagrams.

?

View the system architecture by looking the defined packages.

?

Explore the physical nature of the system using component diagrams.

UML Foundations:
Things

The vocabulary of the UML encompasses three kinds of building blocks: – Structural, Behavioral, Grouping, Annatational.

Relationships – Dependency, Association, Generalization and Realization. Diagrams

– Every complex system is best approached through a small set of nearly independent

views of a model. The UML diagrams are classified into static and dynamic diagrams Static/ Structural Diagrams
1. Class Diagram
2. Object Diagram
3. Interaction Diagram
3.1 Component Diagram
3.2 Deployment Diagram
Dynamic / Behavior Diagrams
1. Use Case Diagram
2. Interaction Diagram
2.1 Sequence Diagram
2.2 Collaboration Diagram
3. State Chart Diagram
4. Activity Diagram
Use-case Diagram: A Use-case diagram is created to visualize the interaction of the system with the outside world.
Activity Diagram: An activity diagram shows the flow of events within the system. Sequence diagram: A sequence diagram shows step by step what must happen to accomplish a piece of functionality provided by the system. A sequence diagram is also known as interaction diagram.

Collaboration Diagram: This type of diagram shows the object and their links to one another. A collaboration diagram is also known as interaction diagram.

Class Diagram: Class diagrams are created to show the structure of the system. Class diagrams contain classes, relationships and multiplicity indicators. A class is a collection of objects with common – structures, behaviors, relationships and semantics. The UML notation for class is a compartmented rectangle. The first compartment shows the name of the class. Each class also has data associated with it, which are represented by set of activities. State Chart Diagram: A state chart diagram shows the lifecycle of the single class. Component Diagram: A Component diagram illustrates the organization and dependencies among software components.

Deployment diagram: A deployment diagram visualizes the distribution of components across the enterprise.
Extending the UML:
Stereotypes can be used to extend the UML notational elements. Stereotypes may be used to classify and extend associations, inheritance, relationships, classes, and components. Examples:
? Class Stereotypes: interface, exception, server page
? Association Stereotypes: identifying, non – identifying ? Dependency Stereotypes: include, extend
? Component Stereotypes: subsystem
Rules of the UML:
The UML has the following semantic rules to become a well-formed model. Names
What you can call things, relationships and diagrams.
Scope
The context that gives specific meaning to a name.
Visibility
How those names can be seen and used by others.
Integrity
How things properly and consistently related.
Execution
What it means to run or simulate a dynamic model?
Common Mechanisms in UML:
The UML is made simpler by the presence of four common mechanisms that apply throughout the language:
? Specifications
? Adornments
? Common divisions
? Extensibility mechanisms.

Result:
Thus a detailed description of Unified Modeling language is studied.

EX.NO :
DATE :

ATM SYSTEM

Problem Statement:
The Bank client must be able to withdraw an amount from his/her account using Bank application. Each transaction must be recorded and the client must have the ability to review all transaction performed against a given account. Recorded transaction must include date, time, transaction type, amount and account balance after the transaction.The application must verify that a client can gain access to his/her account by identification through a PIN code (Personal Identification Number). If the balance is insufficient to cover the requested amount then application should inform the user and terminate the transaction.

Project Scope:
To analyze the ATMSystem and design the Use case diagram, Sequence diagram, Collaboration diagram and Class diagram using Rational Rose software.

Problem Analysis:
? The client enters the PIN number and required amount.
? The system validates the PIN
? If the pin number is valid the controller checks the remaining amount in the client’s account
? If there is sufficient amount, the requested amount will be given to the client. The balance amount will be updated in the database.
? If the requested amount is not present in the client will be informed that there is no amount

Object:
This system helps to check the ATM card and give the money to the client.

Infrastructure:
The software required to develop to develop the ATM system is Rational Rose EnterpriseEdition.

Data base

member

controller

Component Diagram

9: check the account
2: enter the PIN number
8: withdraw the amount
13: take the card
ATM :
controller

ATM : Member
11: with draw the amount

5: code is invalid
7: pin code is valid

6: Take the ATM card

10: Account is possible
12: account is impossible

4: Check the PIN number

1: insert the card
3: Verify the the PIN number
ATM :
login

ATM : Database
Atm :
Logout

5: deposit the amount
ATM :
controller
ATM : Member

7: view the account

9: Take the ATM card

4: card is valid
8: Card is invalid

6: store the account

3: Check the card

1: insert the ATM card
2: Verify the card
ATM : Database
ATM :
login

Atm :
Logout

Collaboration Diagram

member
withdraw
deposit
login()
logout()
deposit()
withdraw()

*

1

*

1

atmcontroller
checking
withdraw
deposit
checking()
withdraw()
deposit()

Class Diagram

database
log in
store
withdraw
logout
checking
checking()
withdraw()
deposit()
1..*login()
*

ATM : login
ATM : Member
1: insert the card

ATM :
controller

Atm : Logout
ATM : Database

2: enter the PIN number
3: Verify the the PIN number
4: Check the PIN number
5: code is invalid
6: Take the ATM card
7: pin code is valid
8: withdraw the amount
9: check the account
10: Account is possible

11: with draw the amount
12: account is impossible
13: take the card

Sequence Diagram for with draw amount

Login

deposit the amount
Member

Withdraw amount

View account

Logout

Use case Diagram

Database

ATM : login
ATM : Member

ATM :
controller

Atm : Logout
ATM : Database

1: insert the ATM card
2: Verify the card
3: Check the card
4: card is valid
5: deposit the amount
6: store the account

7: view the account

8: Card is invalid

9: Take the ATM card

Sequence Diagram for Deposit amount

Member access to the ATM
insert the card

Enter the
password
Password not accepted

Password accepted
Select type of
transaction
Perform the
transaction
More transaction

Take the card
No more Transaction
Exit the member in ATM

Activity Diagram