Role of private educational sector in
imparting quality education at headrajkan : a case study of al noor system of
Education is recog nised as a fundamental
human right by international standard-setting instruments. Providing education
is the primary responsibility of the state.1 Education can also be provided by
non-state actors, including religious institutions, non-governmental organisations,
community-based groups, trusts, enterprises and individual proprietors.2 Private
institutions are not operated by public authorities but are controlled and
managed, whether for profit or not, by private bodies such as non-government
organizations (NGOs), religious bodies, special interest groups, foundations
and businesses.’3 While private education refers to a type of education, privatisation
is a process that can be defined as ‘the transfer of activities, assets and
responsibilities from government/public institutions and organizations to
private individuals and agencies’.4
The privatisation of education occupies an
increasingly large place in the educational debate. Many concerns have emerged
with the rapid expansion of the process of privatisation since the last decade,
especially for developing countries where the public system is often
overwhelmed and may be unable to cope with rapidly rising demand.5 In many
developing countries, this process has resulted in a redefinition of the share
of education financing between the states, non-state providers and families.6
Besides financing, the issue of privatisation is also deeply connected to
parents’ freedom to choose their children’s education7, management flexibility,
private regulation and accountability.8 Some research has shown that human
rights and the right to education have not been the key focus in discussions on
privatisation of education.9 The Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education
has underlined the shift in the delivery of education from a public good to a
private service in his
2014 report.10 Through unregulated private
education, there could be risks that access to education may be denied on
discriminatory grounds such as social origin, property or economic status, and
that the principle of equality of educational opportunities may be overlooked.
As a consequence, the principles of social justice and equity, which underpin
the right to education, may be jeopardized.
Moreover, some private providers have
developed fee-paying institutions called ‘for-profit’ or ‘low-cost’ schools,
closely linked to a ‘de facto’ privatisation of the education sector.11
As previously mentioned, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to
Education has devoted his last report to the subject.12 Many international
organisations, associations, NGOs and other civil society actors have started
to look at for-profit institutions from a human rights-based point of view.
These studies have shown that for-profit education and a commercialised
educational sector can jeopardise the exercise of the right to education. In
this context, privatised and commercialised education can have dreadful
consequences on the social development of a country if it is not duly
regulated, monitored and if private entities cannot be found accountable in
case of violations of the right to education.
Over the past decade, private sector has
emerged as a key provider of education services in Pakistan both in absolute
terms and relative to the public sector. One piece of evidence relates to the
number of private schools, which increased by 69%, as compared to mere 8%
increase of government schools between 1999-2000 and 2007-08. In 2000, the
private sector was catering to the educational needs of about 6 million
children. This number increased to 12 million in 2007-08 – equivalent to 34 percent
of total enrolment. The number of teachers also doubled in private 1
educational institutions during this period . This massive growth has thrown up
many important questions. What has caused the private education institutions to
grow so rapidly? How is public schooling affected by this growth? Should the government
strictly regulate the private providers of education? To what extent are public-private
partnerships effective for meeting the growing demand for education? Are the
private schools providing better quality of learning than the government schools? To answer such
questions and the like is crucial for identifying the emerging challenges and
formulating effective responses and strategies at the policymaking and
The growth of private schools, especially of
the low-fee schools, has forced education policymakers and analysts to take
cognizance of the promises as well as
challenges emanating from this development.
While many see the role of the state as the traditional provider of educational
services as natural and irreplaceable, a growing number of commentators, both
within Pakistan and internationally, favor a laissez faire policy for the private
sector to emerge as a key provider of education and argue that the state should
not compete with private schools. While the role of the state as the financer
and provider of education remains a matter of debate and controversy, the
growth of private provision of education is widely interpreted by many as
evidence of the parents’ lack of faith in the capacity of public sector to deliver
quality education to all children. Some also argue that it is unwise to rely on
market-based solutions for massive education while others believe that
regulation and public-private partnerships can be effective strategies to spot
and rectify the market failures.
The milieu outlined above indicates that
private education has become a significant phenomenon in Pakistan and yet
little is known about key dynamics of this phenomenon. Keeping this in view,
this study examines the state and growth of private education in the country
between 1999-2000 and 2007-08. Some data covers the period up to 2010. The
analysis focuses on issues and challenges that emanate from its size and
growth, diversity in the private provision of education, financing, quality of
teaching and learning, public-private partnerships and regulation. The purpose
of the study is to identify some areas which require further research and to
highlight important existing and emerging issues in the private education which
call for an informed debate and policy response.
The evidence presented in different sections
of the study is based on desk based research which was undertaken by Institute
for Social and Policy Sciences (ISAPS) for Pakistan Education Task Force (PETF)
with the support of Department for International Development (DFID) UK.
Preliminary findings and inferences from the research were shared with PETF in
March 2010. This study presents a fuller analysis of the research with a view
to facilitate an informed policy debate, suggest recommendations and implement
strategies for living up to the challenges associated with the growth of
private education. At this stage, it is pertinent to point out that the
analysis presented in the study draws on the existing statistical data and
research studies. Description of the expansion in number of institutions,
enrollment and teachers is made by combining data from the Census of Private
Educational Institutions 1999-2000, National Education Census 2005 and
published data from National Education Management Information System (NEMIS)
for 2006-07 and 2007-08. The reader is cautioned that these two sets of
databases (censuses and NEMIS reports) are not strictly comparable due to some
differences in scope and methodology. For example, the census conducted in 2000
does not cover madrasahs because they were excluded from the definition of
private schools but subsequently they were covered in 2005 census. Moreover,
the data of private education in NEMIS reports is based on estimates derived
from the past trends, contrary to the public sector data which is based on
annual census. While these differences do not allow an apple-to-apple comparison,
there is no other database on which one could rely for drawing a national-level
holistic scenario over a longer period. Despite the differences in their scope
and methodology, they provide fairly reliable estimates of growth in institutions,
teachers and enrolment. However, the reader has to keep in mind these differences
while interpreting the data.
In addition to the private schools’ censuses
and NEMIS reports, research studies dealing with different aspects of private education
in Pakistan and other regions were intensively consulted. Key arguments and
findings from the studies have been used to supplement the analysis.
Head rajkan is a town which comes under the
tehsil Yazman of district Bahawalpur. In 1990 the literacy rate was too low
that did not meet any criteria. From 1990 to 2000 the situation was totally
different the government schools were in full working and functional but the
result was not so good.
To identify the reasons behind the rise of
private organizations of educations at headrajkaan
To find out the difference created by private
schools and collages at headrajkan related literacy rate.
To find out the role of private schools in
imparting quality education.
To evaluate the quality of teaching and
learning of Al Noor system of education.
To find out the diversity in private
To evaluate the quality of teaching and
learning in private schools at head rajkan.
To analyze the public private partner ships
To examine the financing of private schools
To recommend certain measures to improve standard
of quality education at Head Raj kaan.
What are differences between the private
institutes and government sector institutes?
What is the ratio of rise in private
education (size and growth)?
what is the finance hierarchy of private
schools at head rajkaan?
How diversity is playing an important role in
What is the quality of teaching and learning
in private schools at head rajkan?
What is the impact of public private
partnerships on education at headrajkan?
What is the role of al Noor system of
education in imparting quality education?
Significance of the
The research is of vital significance. It is
really important to know that how the private school system and al Noor System
of education played a vital role in imparting quality education at headrajkan.
study will be helpful.
To understand the role played by the private
schools at headrajkaan.
To understand the standard of private
find out the significant methodology used in private school which causes
Analysis of privatization.
To recommend certain measures to improves the
TYPE OF RESEARCH:
The research is Analytical research in nature because
analytical research is based on question it asks. Analytical research attempts
to establish why it is that way or how it came to be.the analytical research
concerns itself with cause-effect relationship.
The population of study is
comprised of private schools of headrajkan
and all the teachers which are teaching in all private.
It is generally believed
that the accuracy of a survey demand large sample size. However the small sample
size is desired because it is easy to manage, observe and a very low cost is
5 school of head raj kan and al Noor system of education from head raj kaan are
selected from head raj kaan as a sample of the research.
Survey, questionnaires and
interviews developed by researcher will be used. The questionnaire will be
administered on the selected sample to examine the role of private schools in
imparting quality education.
Before starting the data
collection process the researcher will visit many times privte schools by the
permission of head teacher, appointment with private teacher will be fixed according to their
convenience and leisure. These procedures will help to collect information about
the learning material and learning methods of private schools. This process
will also help in the identification of teaching methodologies used in private
After collected data, data
sheet will be administered with code numbers. As the coding is a process of
putting numbers and classifying data (Johnson’s, 2005). The coded data will be
analyzed by the experts of the department of education, NCBA&E. The experts
will use certain procedure like some of coded values, percentage distribution,
and average of summed valve.
study is delimnated to
and private schools of district bahawalpur
tehsils of district Bahawalpur.
and policy makers.
and rural areas of five selected tehsils of district Bahawalpur.
Rashid (ed.), “Engaging with Basic Education in Pakistan” SAHE Education
Report 2000 (Lahore: 2000).
Nick, “Private Sector Provision of Schooling: An Economic Assessment”
40:3. 2004. 385-399.
Bakhsh Malik, Public-Private Partnerships in
Education: Lessons Learned
from Punjab Education Foundation (Islamabad: Asian Development Bank,
Jones et al. “Private Schooling in the Northern Areas of Pakistan: A Decade of
Expansion,” International Journal of
Educational Development, 25,
Reza Jamil, Transforming Education through
Governance: Experience from Pakistan (Presentation for UNESCO, 2002)
Reza Jamil, Decentralization and Devolution in Pakistan: Educational
of the Praetorian Interpretation, in Christopher Bjork, ed.,
Educational Decentralization, Springer: 2006.
Harlech-Jones et al. “Private Schooling in the Northern Areas of Pakistan: A
of Rapid Expansion,” International Journal of
Jimenez & Jee Peng Tan, “Decentralized and Private Education: The
of Pakistan” Comparative Education 23:2. 1987. 173-90.
Jimenez & Jee Peng Tan, “Educational Development in Pakistan: The
of User Charges and Private Education,” World Bank Education and
Series Discussion Paper Number EDT 16. 1985.
of Pakistan, Proceedings of the Pakistan
of Pakistan, Proceedings of the Educational
Conference held in
Karachi on the 4th and 5th December, 1951 (Karachi: 1951)
of Pakistan, Ministry of Education, Report of the Commission on
National Education, (Karachi:
of Pakistan, Report of the Commission on
Student Problems and
of Pakistan, Recommendations for the New
of Pakistan, Ministry of Education, “Public-Private Partnerships in
Education Sector,” (Islamabad:
of Pakistan, Ministry of Education, National Education Conference,
October 3-5, 1977. (Islamabad:
of Pakistan, Ministry of Education, National Education Policy and
Implementation Programme, (Islamabad:
Das et al. “Learning Levels and Gaps in Pakistan,” World Bank Working Paper
Kim et al. “Can Private School Subsidies Increase Enrollment for the Poor?
Urban Fellowship Program” World Bank Economic Review 13:3,
Tooley & Pauline Dixon, “Private Schools for the Poor: A Case Study from
Center for British Teachers, 2003.