It’s important to use n adhesive that makes a firm, reliable bond that remains strong and weather-resistant for years. Different ingredients are used to form adhesive, it can be petroleum-based or simply a Portland cement mixed with sand and water. These materials are useful in construction but today, petroleum prices are still quite high and the supplies are slowly decreasing and the cost of Portland cement is also increasing. Adhesives are use in different ways. Shoes, cars, airplanes, rotor blades for wind turbines, self-adhesive notes, plaster – this is just a sample of the many products featuring adhesives.
It is ere significant in construction sector. Every individual choose affordable and high quality materials. In connection with this, finding an alternative is a must. Most of the time, alternatives are found from recycle and waste materials. Swine manure is non-usable waste as we thought. Mostly, people do not appreciate even a little bit importance of it without knowing that it might form into some solid residue to produce one of the construction materials. Protecting the environment is our main concern.
Recycling and using waste materials can be beneficial factors to both human and environment. Enhancing one’s knowledge in producing or recycling materials is an effective solution to minimize pollution and waste disposal. Creating tile adhesive with the use of swine manure could be a great help not only in the environment but also in people’s health. It also minimizes the cost of some construction supplies. Choosing the best tile adhesive product helps ensure that your beautiful addition gives you years of enjoyable use.
Conceptual framework of the Study The concept of waste minimization emphasizes the reduction of waste and pollution by increasing process efficiency to produce useful materials that loud benefit all people in ones’ society. Many barriers and opportunities exist in developing waste minimization strategies. By redirecting the focus of waste minimization, recycling exist. Lot of waste materials exist that can be recycled. Several people and companies came up with the idea to recycle more of their products when energy costs went up in the 1 sass. Over 70 million tones of waste is produced in the construction industry each year.
While the trend is questioning the traditional route of waste disposal in favor of sustainable waste management strategies, the majority of the instruction industry has placed waste reduction at the bottom of research agendas because of complexities over reuse and recycling. The target for any waste reduction strategy must be to focus on opportunities from the outset. The research at Lugubrious University, in collaboration with AMES Construction, is focusing on the system and decision practices that create waste in design. The issue at who is responsible for waste arising has attracted little interest in the past.
Recently however, with the increasing cost of wastes disposal, particularly to landfill, the construction industry is keening to the opportunities of waste reduction. The reasons for waste within the industry are widespread and complex. There is a little doubt that initiatives such as pre-assembly and standardization are realizing improvements within the industry. The construction industry as a whole was awakened to the immediate costs of waste disposal through the introduction of the landfill tax. A number of unique challenges had to be accommodated to adapt the concept to local conditions.
Different places focuses On different construction methodology like South Africa that focuses on Wet works’ while n Europe, ‘dry works’ based on construction is predominant. Tiling is one of the construction works that must be care of. In order to come up with durable works, some materials are used for bonding which then called adhesive. Adhesive are formed from different materials. It can be petroleum – based or simply used- Raw materials. Adhesive are scientifically and technologically diverse subjects encompassing the field of polymeric materials, urology, surface chemistry, engineering mechanics and process technology.
Adhesion on the other hand is a specific interracial phenomenon retaining to the degree to which the surfaces of two different materials are attracted to each other. Adhesive also composed Of certain raw materials such as starch and Dexedrine that are derived from cereals or roots such as corn, wheat, tapioca, sago, etc. The main use for these adhesive is the paper industry where they are used in MultiMate bags, corrugated paper; etc. Dexedrine which is dry roasted starch is used in remoistened able adhesives. Gelatin are proteins which are derived from the hydrolysis of either collagen or Soya flour and was used for adhesives.
Some adhesives are from: 1. Animal glues from ones and hides are used in gummed tape, textiles and the paper industry such as book-binding and case making. 2. Fish glues manufactured from skins have been used in rubber gasket to steel bonding, paper to steel etc. 3. Cashiers from skim milk are used mainly in wood to wood bonds. 4. Soya bean glues are used in paper backs. 5. Blood glues are mainly used in venturing and plywood. Adhesive nowadays was one Of needed material for construction. The cost Of material for adhesives was definitely increasing while the quality was decreasing.
The need to find an alternative for high quality and affordable trial was a great help in construction industry. Several waste are being dispose without knowing that it could be used for producing useful materials. One of those wastes was the manure of animals. Finding an alternative must consider the value and quantity of waste used in order to provide dominant supply. Production of pork is a major agricultural enterprise in the United State and one of the primary issues associated with the production of pork and expansion of production is the disposal of the animals and manure storage facilities.
Today’s swine production systems have become larger, ore specialized and more dependent on purchases feed supplies than in the past. Environmental problems feed associated with swine production during the sass’s and 1 ass’s were often overlooked. However, swine production was characterized by small, individual systems that relied on recycling of animal manure back to the land as a major nutrients source for the farm. In the last 20 years, many structural changes have occurred in industry. These changes have caused concern over the environmental effects of swine manure management.
Swine are estimated to produce daily raw manure of as much as 8. 4 percent of body weight. While many swine farms have their entire product at one side, an increasing number involve two or more sites, either through production contacts or expanded ownership. Thus, the issue of swine manure is becoming an issue of point source production, especially as it relates to livestock ownership and responsibility for the collected materials. Swine manure is handled as a solid, as semisolid slurry, or a liquid, depending on the type of housing and manure handling system used.
It benefits not only the agricultural sector but as well as construction. The number of swine all over the Philippines proves that manure might reduce dominant product of adhesives. Adhesive is any substance that when applied to the surfaces of materials, binds surfaces together and resist separation. Existing tile adhesive is now increasing in terms Of its cost. However, an alternative used through swine manure is a good idea since it helps not only in managing waste but also in the health of each individual. It also helps and contributes to market industry for it lessens the cost of some construction materials.
Figure 1. Schema of the Study Statement Of the problem This study aims to produce affordable waste material to provide economical UT durable and high quality product. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following question: 1 . What are the processes involved in producing tile adhesive using swine manure as main ingredient? 2. How does the proposed swine manure tile adhesive differ from existing adhesive in terms of: A. Durability B. Economy C. Safety 3. What are the benefits both the consumer and the environment might gain?
Hypothesis of the Study The study is premised on the hypothesis: That there is no significant difference in the perception of the people as to usefulness of swine manure in producing tile adhesive. Assumption Waste management for swine manure could be a great help to people living near the place where swine exists. Scope and Limitation of the Study The scope of this study is premised on the production of tile adhesive using swine manure. The study focuses on the importance of manure as a recycled waste to some application such as production of tile adhesive and asphalt binder.
With the proper use of materials out from recycled wastes, a bad environmental impact decreases. Significance of the Study The significance of the study rests in the benefit that could be enjoyed by the following: Construction Firms and Consumers. The result of this study will give benefits to the consumer in the sense that this project will be realized and could choose high quality materials with affordable prices. They could lessen their expenses. Producer . The study is also beneficial to the procedure since they could produce much supply because swine manure exists everywhere.
And also they could gain much profit compare to standard tile adhesive. Pig Owner. This project proposal would also be enjoyed by pig owner for they could gain a little amount of money by selling the manure to producer. And also they could not dispose it any. Here which sometimes cause pollution. Environmental Sanitation in-Charge. The study is likewise beneficial to the in charge of proper displacement of waste for they need not to worry of the excess of swine manure since it is now one of the useful materials. Public.
Realization of this project is of great help to the people for it minimizes pollution and it manages waste in the environment. People’s health is considered as one aspect that may be affected when improper disposal of waste worsen. Operational Definition of Terms In order to facilitate accuracy of understanding of the content of this and for he reader to have a common frame of reference, the following are defined operationally: Swine Manure – refers to the excreta of the pig. Tile Adhesive -? any substance that binds the tile into the surface and it resists separation.
Hydrothermal Process – a process that pertain to the action of hot. Bio-oil -? refers to a liquid substance that extracted from natural or waste materials. Fractionated- refers to separation of a material into constituents. Hydrothermal Liquefaction- a promising tech oenology for converting waste water biomass into a liquid fuel. Waste disposal -? throwing of unused materials in a particular place. Manure management – refers to the act of handling the excreta properly. Petroleum-based material- refers to the materials that come from organic matter that is buried deep below he earth’s surface by layer upon layer of sediment.
Raw- materials -refers to materials suitable for manufacture. Synthetically -? forming and developing new material not using natural process. Plant- based Adhesive – refers to a binder that formed from various type of plant. High-quality – it refers to material that last for a long time. Dry up- the act of drying and losing water or moisture. Odor control- handling of uncertain smell. Livestock man ere – refers a excreta that was being kept for certain purpose. Waste minimization- the act of reducing unused materials to the least possible amount, degree or position. Economy- this refers to production of less cost materials.
Sanitation- refers to a state of disposing waste materials in a correct way. Health- the state of being free from physical diseases or pain. Cost- the value or price of certain product. Durability- the power to resist stress or force. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents some relevant works which interact and connect to the present study being made. Different studies, views and concepts were incorporated in framing up the researchers own point of view. Related Literature Animal production has evolved to fewer products, larger average herd and higher concentration Of animals.
One major problem in this scenario is that intensive animal production facilities produce more livestock manure waste than needed to maintain the nutrient cycle balance in traditional agricultural systems on the nearby farmland. Hydrothermal liquefaction (ETC) is a promising technology for converting waste water biomass into a liquid fuel (Central, 2007). H TTL has been applied o a wide range of wastewater feedstock including swine manure, cattle manure, micromanage, macro algae and sludge (Suzuki, 1988). The recovered bio crude oil can be directly combusted or upgraded to approach petroleum oil (Dote, 1991).
The ability of TTL to convert a wide-range of waste-water feed stocks provides a significant waste-disposal benefit, it also presents a major challenge for optimization and downstream processes due to the diverse bio crude oil chemistry that can result (Pardon, Sahara, Scott, You, Wang, Sideman, Ghana, Strongman, 201 1) Swine waste can be converted to yield a binding or adhesive, material that an replace a petroleum derivative that now makes up about 7 percent of asphalt and that has driven up asphalt’s cost (Fin, 2011 Swine manure is used beneficially in some sectors includes agriculture and construction.
Through this kind of Waste material, producing lower cost and high-quality tile adhesive is not impossible. An adhesive is any substance that, when applied to the surfaces of materials, binds the surfaces together and resists operation. The term “adhesive” may be used interchangeably with glue, cement, mucilage or paste. The use of adhesives offers many advantages over the binding quenches such as sewing, welding, bolting, screwing, etc..
These advantages include the ability to bind different materials together, the ability to distribute stress more efficiently across the joint, the cost effectiveness of an easily mechanized process, an improvement in aesthetic design and increased design. Most adhesives have been manufactured from petroleum-based materials. However, they can also be obtained from renewable raw materials- for example from proteins, natural rubber, starch, or cellulose. Pioneering products featuring these new adhesives include tile adhesive most commonly hind-set mortar.
It is usually mixed by the person installing the tile, and has a better bonding strength and offers more flexibility than organic mastic. This adhesive is applied to the tile in a thin layer, usually not more than 0. 1875 inch (4. 76 mm) thick. Some adhesives are just combination of Portland cement, sand and element that promotes water retention. Latex mortar and acrylic-mixed mortar have additives that increase adhesion and lower water absorption, and either is perfect for wet or dry installations. Adhesives may be found naturally or produced synthetically.
The earliest use Of adhesive-like substances by humans was approximately 200,000 years ago. From then until the sass’s increase in adhesive use and discovery were relatively gradual. Only since the last century has the development of synthetic adhesives accelerated rapidly and innovation in the field continuous to the present. The earliest use of adhesives was discovered in Italy. At this site, two stone flakes partially covered with birch-bar-tar and a third uncovered stone from the Middle Pleistocene era (circa 200,000 years ago) were found.
This is thought to be the oldest discovered human use of tar hafted stones. The birch-bark-tar adhesive is a simple, one component adhesive. Although sticky enough, plant based adhesives are brittle and vulnerable to environmental conditions. The first use of compound adhesives was discovered in Subside, South Africa. Here, 70,000 year old stone segments that were once inserted in hafts, covered with an adhesive composed of a combination of plant gum and red ochre (natural iron oxide), were found.
Adding ochre to plant gum produces a stronger product and protects the gum from disintegrating under wet conditions. The ability to produce stronger adhesives allowed middle Stone Age humans to attach stone segments to sticks in greater variations and led to the development of new tools. More recent examples of adhesive use by prehistoric humans have been found at the burial sites of ancient tribes. Archaeologists studying the sites found that approximately 6,000 years ago, the tribesmen had buried their dead with food found in broken clay pots repaired with tree resins.
The first references to adhesives in literature first appeared in approximately 2,000 BC. F-rather historical records of adhesive use are found from the period starting 1,500 BC and ending 1,000 BC. Artifacts from this period include paintings depicting wood gluing operations and a casket made of wood and glue in King Tutu’s Tomb. Other ancient Egyptian artifacts employ the use of animal glue in bonding or lamination. Such lamination of wood for bows and furniture is thought to have extended its life and was conducted with the use of casein (milk protein) based glues.
From 1 ;500 AD the Greeks and Romans made great contributions to the development of adhesives. Veneering and Marquette (bonding of thin sections or layers of wood) was developed, the production of animal and fish lees refined, and other materials utilized. Egg based pastes were used to bond gold leaves and various natural ingredients such as blood, bone, hid, milk, cheese, vegetables, and grains were incorporated into glues. The Greeks began the use of slaked lime as mortar and the Romans furthered mortar development by mixing lime with volcanic ash and sand.
This material, known as pizzicato cement, was used in the construction of the Roman Coliseum and Pantheon. Considering the limitations imposed on growth of swine farms by manure management practices and environmental regulations and the increasing emend for adhesive in construction, this sustainable development will result in major improvements both in environmental and economic impacts. Studies Manure Management is an integral part of any swine production system and must be carefully considered when planning new or remodeled facilities.
Manure management objectives may include: 1 optimum nutrient retention and utilization; 2. ) Minimum land, labor or capital requirements; 3. ) odor control; 4. ) animal and/ or human health and performance considerations; or 5. ) some combination of these objectives (Dickey, Brume, Shelton, 1980). Livestock manure is a potential source of surface and groundwater contamination. Modern livestock production, confining herds in smaller spaces, has increased problems associated with disposing and making use of manure. Properly handled and used, manure may be an asset; otherwise, it is a liability.
Spreading manure on land recycles nutrients and replaces much commercial fertilizer. It increases the fertility and water-holding capacity of the soil and also improves soil tilt, bulk density, infiltration rate and permeability. Collecting, storing hauling and applying manure to fields nearly represents net production costs, but is usually the least-cost system for livestock manure utilization (Foliage and posts, 2001). Hydrothermal processing of swine manure is a novel technology that has shown very promising results in treating waste and producing oil.
A batch hydrothermal process system that was previously developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign successfully converted up to 70% of swine man ere volatile solids into oil and reduced manure chemical oxygen demand by up to ( K. S Copernican, Y. Ghana, T. Funk, 2006). Fresh and Pit swine manures tit different storage time were used as feedstock to investigate the effects of manure type and storage time on bio-crude conversion rates using a hydrothermal process. Both fresh and pit manures had been converted to bio-crude with refined oil yields of 32-42% (dry mass) of the total feedstock 60-70% raw oil yield).
The refined oil is the toluene soluble portion of the raw oil. The testing conditions were ICC, with an initial solid content of 20% wet, a retention time of 30 min, an initial NO gas pressure of 0. 65 Amp, and without catalysts or additives (Wang, Yuan Ghana, Leslie Christianson, Ted Funk, Mitchell Marinara, Ring Dong, Guy You , 2009). Hydrothermal process was used to convert swine manure to a bio-oil. The bio-oil was fractionated to extract water, solid residue, and some of the organic compounds.
The sticky residue after fractionation was used as a replacement for asphalt binder (Fin, 201 1). Past researchers found swine manure as an alternative for bituminous asphalt binder. Bio-binder is produced by swine manure by using a thermoelectric conversion process. In addition to offering a renewable alternative for petroleum-based binder, bio-modified rubber (BMW) can be a hybrid environmental solution for the management of swine manure and scrap tire. Bio-binder from swine manure was found to be a promising candidate for partial replacement for petroleum-asphalt binder.
The use of bio-binder will improve petroleum-asphalt binder’s low temperature properties while reducing asphalt pavement construction costs; the cost of bio-binder production is estimated to be $0. 13/ L ($0. 54/gal) and that of asphalt binder is $ 0. 53/L (S 2/ gal) ( Fin, Cellarer, Shabby, Bassist, You, Oozier, Rearrange, 201 1). Finis’s research focuses on the composition of the material ND her discoveries offer several opportunities to increase material performance while combating high material prices.
Her goal has been two- fold: reducing cracking at low temperature and finding alternative to petroleum-based asphalt. A few other materials Fin considered were woody biomass and algae which are both also being used to produce bio-fuel. Swine manure was one alternative material that appeared to be the most promising, due to its chemistry. Fin also said that one of the benefits that swine manure asphalt could give is an improved low temperature characteristics and workability of the mix.
Contractors can potentially use higher percentages of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled shingles in conjunction with the bio-binder while still achieving good workability and performance. One of the advantages of bio-binder is to modify the PIG to higher and more-enhanced. With the development Of new generation of polymer-modified cement adhesives, there has been an increasing emphasis of the importance of flexibility and deformation capabilities of these adhesives.
There are several established test methods for determining the shear modulus and shear strength of adhesives. ASTM D 4027 04 ” Standard Test Method for Measuring Shear Properties of Structural Adhesives by the Modified Rail Test” is a test protocol which determines shear strength values for adhesives with a degree of accuracy which allows use in engineering and predicting the characteristics of composite adhered tile assemblies bonded with adhesives.