However Reined (2010) questioned whether the police were actually a “political representation” whose focus was to maintain the interest of the rueful, against the majority of the opposing working class. On the other hand Reined also offered the alternate view of that the police were actually an organization whose focus was to benefit and protect everyone. Before the police Act Of 1964, there Were two main Systems Of governance.
The first being of that in rural areas, where committees of magistrates acted as the chief officer role and were given freedom upon their how they decided to operate and deploy their force. Compared to the system in urban areas, were local councilors formed a watch committee, and they were in charge of the coal forces and their operations, an example of one of these forces is West Yorkshire Police, these forces became known as Borough police forces, and the Chief Officer was either the Executive officer of the Watch Committee or the Superintendent (Newbury, 2012).
Then the police Act of 1 964 was introduced, the act combined the two systems into a new one. This new system was over watched by the, Home secretary, Local Police Authority, and the Chief Constable creating an “equal triangle” between the three parties. This “Equal triangle” meant that each party had equal power and equal opportunities to use this power how they saw fit, however this caused problems as academics stated that this was false, and that Chief constable and Home Secretary had more power than the local authorities did.
In addition the police act made the Chief Constable in charge of how the police force were directed and controlled. This in turn meant that the local authority had less influence and power. In the sass’s there was many cases in which the local authority attempted to use and show what little power and influence they had. Marshall and Reined stated that this outlook was somewhat impolitic and proposed their own theory on the matter.
Marshall and Reined proposed that the police are allowed to look, and ask for information and answers after an incident as has occurred, and the political authority are able to use their power to control and manage the police service in order to solve, contain, or manage the incident or event. In the sass’s, Reined added to his theory and named it “Calculative and contractual” model. Reined noticed that around this time the government became more financially motivated. In particular with policing, the government started using techniques in financial and performance managing.
This meant that the police service had to become more cost effective and efficient. In 1994 the “Police and magistrates act” was introduced to change and reform how the police were governed. One of the main parts of the acts was introduced to reduce the amount of magistrates and councilors elected, in addition the act aimed at making police authorities become independent of the local authorities (Newbury, 201 2) Furthermore the police service changed their role motto, from providing and “adequate and efficient” to that of an “Efficient and effective” service.
The changes also made the police report their annual statistics and Lana their performance targets for the next annual year, these publications were compulsory. However these changes were heavily criticized and it was suggested that the police SE;CE had become economically motivated and orientated. As the statistics were put into league tables as were the key performance indicators. This led to performance related pay, meaning the police officers got paid according to how many targets they hit successfully, and they got bonuses if they exceeded the targets.
It was suggested that this meant the police were arresting people for crimes, which would normally be overlooked or fined, just so the officers could hit their targets. The year 1997 brought about more changes for the police service, as the Labor Government were elected, they brought several changes as part of their policies. The Labor Government’s main focus changed to the community, and making the community feel safer. Again this was criticized as people suggested that although they may have felt safer, they weren’t necessarily safer. In 1998 a new act was passed, known as the “Crime Disorder Act”.
This act meant that local police forces became responsible for their actions, in addition another focus was to concentrate on the police forces to work with the local authorities to work with the local community, in particular problems within the community and working on their resolution. Newbury stated that perhaps one of the biggest improvements made in the governing of police was the changes to the police and Crime commissioners. In particular how they’re elected in local areas. This improvement came under the “Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act” in 2011.
The introduction of Police and Crime Commissioners means they have a united voice, and a voice for which he police force are accountable too. The Crime Commissioners are held responsible by the police force to make sure that the community’s needs are the number one priority within the police service, the main reason of this priority is so that the public are able to trust the police service, to make the community feel safe. This is not dissimilar from the Labor Governments aims, except this time the police force work together in conjunction with national agencies to help reduce crime and to go one step further in the prevention of crime.
Therefore making the communities the police force work tit feel safer, and in actual fact be safer. In addition the mentioned above, the Crime Commissioner also aim to provide a police force that is efficient. Additional the Crime Commissioner is responsible for making sure the correct Chief Constable is appointed, and to then make sure the Chief Constable is performing to the set standard according to the plan. If the Chief Constable isn’t performing adequately it’s the job of the Crime Commissioner to dismiss the Constable appropriately and swiftly.
It’s also the job of the Chief Commissioner to set the budget for the police service and apply funds where he Commissioner feels the need to, in order to improve the police service and help make communities and areas safer. In addition to these tasks, the Commissioner also has to meet the tasks set out by the Home Secretary on national and international affairs. The Police Service have schemes they use to benefit the greater community, and they use these schemes on a regular basis. Some of these Schemes are compulsory, such as the “Community Payback” scheme.
And the other scheme is local schemes, such as “Safer Leeds”. The “Safer Leeds” scheme came into existence as part of the “Crime and Disorder’ act of 1 998 is a immunity partnership, aimed at preventing disorder, crime and drug and substance misuse. This means this scheme is aimed at putting the public and communities interests first. Over the previous decade this scheme has seen constant results, and has seen the decline crimes in the area, so therefore statistics suggest Xx working substantially, despite pressures due to economic decline.
Police Community Support officers are one of the main reasons of the decline in anti-social behavior, and reductions in burglaries. According to statistics, in the years 201 2 and 2013, crime was suggested to have been reduced by 12. %, this could be put down to the work done by the Police Community support officers and the “Safer Leeds” scheme. However, it could also be that the people aren’t reporting as many petty crimes as in previous years.
In terms of more serious crimes, such as robberies, vehicle theft, and violent crime have also seen massive and vital reductions as a result of these increased partnership work. Statistics show there were 5,305 recorded burglaries within the Leeds area in 2012/13. This was a drop of 30. 8% compared to previous years [Online]. This means that was an estimated 2350 fewer victims suffering from burglaries. This scheme has led to Leeds having lower offender rates than Sheffield and Manchester, when before the scheme Leeds had the highest recorded burglaries compared to cities of a similar size and population.
The community payback scheme, is handed out as part of the “Community Sentence” where offenders are ordered to ‘payback’ the community as repercussion for their crimes. Offenders are made to carry out between 40-300 hours of unpaid work according to the seriousness of the crimes committed or frequency. Offenders are supervised and have to perform tasks to benefit the local immunity, this work is hard manual labor, for example litter picking, or removing graffiti from walls and other public places depending on what the community decide is what is more important and what they want doing.
It’s known as “community payback” as the offender pays back the community in terms of free labor, by cutting costs and allowing the local council to spend money on other things, its suggest that roughly EYE million was saved by the community payback scheme across the [J, and evidence shows that over 250,000 hours of “community payback”, or “community service” was undertaken by offenders in Northern Island each year [online]. Offenders are required to wear a luminous orange Hi-Visa jacket with the words “Community Payback” on the back of the jacket.
This makes sure that the local community are able to identify the offenders, and reassures the community can see that the offenders are paying for the crimes the committed. Whilst reassuring the public it also acts as a deterrent as it deters the local community from committing crimes, as the public won’t want to end up on “community service”. The offenders must work a minimum of 28 hours over four days a eek. However offenders who are seen to be a “High risk” to society are not allowed to be on community payback because of the risk they pose.
In order to find out who is deemed as “High Risk” all offenders must be risk assessed. Figures show that between 2012/13 roughly 75,000 offenders were sentenced to Carry out the community payback scheme. In March 2011 the police were given more power act with more discretion and perform their roles with more freedom. Up until this point the focus was on catching the criminal and punishing the offender. However in May 2012 it was proposed that the police UT victims of crime first, instead of the criminal first, this again moved towards making the public feel safe in their surrounding areas.
More legislature was passed to give the police more power. This legislature was proposed in December of 2012 allowing the police and the police crime commissioner more power and a say in how to punish a low level offender, an example of this type of low level offender is a criminal who commits anti- social behavior, or low value thefts. When looking at the current make-up of the police service, it’s easy to say that it’s changed dramatically over the last 0-60 years. This is most noticeable in the change of the role of the female police officer.
After World War 2, positions for women within the service were extremely limited, there were virtually no availability for females. Within the Police Service the police females had their own duties separate from the male officers, female officers had their own separate Hierarchy, and their own separate departments. However this does reflect society at the time, and the inequality of males and females. This is shown by even though female officers had their own hierarchy, females were always answerable to their male underpants (Newbury, 2008).
The inequality and gender discrimination is further shown as women were kept away from the higher paid jobs and higher roles within the police service. This changed in 1975, when the Sex Discrimination Act and Equal Pay Act, when the law stated females should have equal opportunity, not just in the police service but across the United Kingdom. Within the police service this meant that the females were able to do a variation of roles within the police force (Reined 2010).
In spite of this, whether female officers are equal is still disputed today, due to the lack of males in high power policing roles. In addition this inequality also causes a problem with female victims of crime due to the police’s inability to respond to victims of sexual offending. Reined stated this is known as “police Culture” as it’s said that male officers don’t understand domestic violence on female victims. The government tried to rectify this by introducing “Gender Agenda 2” in the year 2006, the lack of female officers still posed problems on female victims of crime.
This lack of female officers is shown by the fact there are only 35,471 female officers in the police service out of a total of 129,956 Alice officers within the 43 police forces in England and Wales. This is only 27. 2% of all officers are female as of March 2013. This figure is up from 26. 8% of March the previous year. This figure is just in terms of the number of female police officers. 29. 7% of female officers are at the rank of constable, up from 29. 4%. When looking at the figures of female officers higher ranks (Egg Chief Inspector and above) is at a low of 1 however this is an increase from 16. % [online] In Terms of the police protecting the powerful, since the sass’s onward the police forced have been plagued by accusations of irruption and discrimination (Reined 201 0) From being paid to “look the other way’ down to the persistent targeting of young black males. It has been suggested that those in held in high regard, for examples celebrities or members of the upper class society have often been protected by the police, in the way that they’ve gotten away with committing crimes, the normal public would not have.
One major example of this, is that is the recent sexual uncovering of several celebrities committing sexual crimes against minors. It’s been suggested that the police protected these celebrities and along with there kept the crimes undercover, as they had power, and influence upon the population. Therefore not creating an upset within the general public but also not creating hassle for themselves, there would have been an outcry from people defending the celebrity. If this had been “a normal person” they would have been arrested and charged with the crime they’d committed.
In conclusion, the police’s job has changed over the last few decades and will no doubt continue to change as societies and communities change over the future, the fact that the government have brought so many different pieces of glistered in order to give power to the police and aid them in their line of work. The fact that crime statistics appear to be falling despite the amount of funding cuts the police service are currently undergoing due to difficult economic times is somewhat outstanding.