Water is an essential natural resource that supports all life on art; this can be human beings, animals and vegetation. It is however interesting to note that even though it is vital to have water in our daily lives its availability is not evenly distributed across the countries that make up Southern Africa. This shortage also makes the availability of fresh clean water quite a rare commodity thus in the process posing serious environmental and health hazards to the varied communities.
Southern Africa lies in a drought- prone region, which experiences natural drought conditions caused by the extended absence of rainfall. Within Southern Africa and Zanzibar in reticular, drought is considered a critical issue because it underlies many problems encountered in developing water-resources for the people. The occurrence of drought can therefore be attributed to the serious consequences on water quality and availability for domestic and agricultural use, reducing the water supply both in quantity and in quality.
The use of soil additives such as manure and fertilizers, livestock production and small scale industries that have mushroomed across Zanzibar has led to increased concern on their environmental impacts and effects they have on the water laity that is available for human consumption. As such the main objective of this study was to focus on the impact that this is contributing on the water quality and health of a population whose economy has been in a state of decadence for almost a decade. It is sad to note that in Zanzibar little has been done to develop or improve on the drinking water quality that is available to its citizens.
It is however concerning that the scenario appears to be the same in other countries within Southern Africa that have not experienced the political upheavals as experienced in Zanzibar. Reduced access to safe drinking water particularly affects a lot of communities in Zanzibar and forces the people and their livestock to concentrate and compete for water around water holes and other sources where they are at risk for contaminated water carrying water borne diseases that have a serious impact on human health.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This dissertation is a culmination of events which began with my migration to the United Kingdom after feeling trapped and oppressed in my own country Zanzibar. The journey was further compounded with the commencement of my BBS (Hon.) in Public Health, as pondered further about what to do after radiation. I realized that I was interested in furthering my studies by undertaking a Masc. Degree in Environmental Sciences(Pollution and Monitoring) which will make me an expert in my chosen path.
My attraction to study the master’s degree was compounded by the fact that it was a degree that would be able to apply my own experiences having grown up in a developing country in Southern Africa where drinking water quality and sanitation was not the top most priorities for the government of the day in certain parts of the country. Along the way a lot of people made their contributions for which I am grateful and thankful.
It has not been easy trying to maintain a life being a mother, wife, maintain household work, as well as a being a master’s student. Will forever be indebted to the help that got from different people from all walks of life. I thought at first being a masters student will be hard but amazingly the support given by the lecturers, fellow students and other staff members within the university made the whole year shorter.
I also felt that being around people with minds alike made me a part of the whole University of Brunet establishment. First and foremost I would like to thank my supervisor,DRP Arians Kaka, my personal Tutor,DRP A Chuddar,DRP Mark Scrimshaw, our Administrator Maggie Westport and all other lecturers, whose help and guidance was not only confined to this particular study, but to other modules in the degree course. M also indebted to my friends and family who believed in me. Thank you to my son, parent’s, sisters, and brothers for their unwavering support and encouragement that they gave me to believe in myself and achieve that which embark on. My final appreciation to my family who throughout this period understood my moods when things were on top of me or when felt like things were stalling. Thank you God, for all the favors it was needed and such appreciated.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Declaration Acknowledgements Ta blew of Contents List of Appendices Abbreviations and Glossary Chapter one Introduction Justification Problem Statement Specific Aims and Objectives Hypotheses and Scope of the Project Dissertation Structure Chapter 2 Literature Review Chapter 3 Methodology Chapter 4 Exposure Sources of Drinking Water Contamination Human Health Risks Associated with Poor Drinking Water Analysis Chapter 5 Data Sources of Drinking water in Developing Countries (Where drinking water is sourced) Chapter 6 Recommendations Conclusions References Appendices Chapter One . Introduction What is water? This is a question that the author posed when looking at the effects of water on the ordinary man in the street. Water is a vital resource that is desired and essential to support all forms of life on earth. Water pervades all aspects of human development and the provision of good quality drinking water is often regarded as an important means of improving health.
Where access to clean and safe drinking water is denied to people, or people lack access to water as a resource, their choices and freedoms become constrained by poor health and vulnerability. Water quality of surface or round water is defined as a function of either or both natural influences and human activities.
The author notes from research already done in Zanzibar that the natural influences that determine water quality are weathering of bedrock minerals, atmospheric processes if photoengraving’s and the deposition of dust, salt by wind (Masons 2007). In Southern Africa, it is interesting to note that there is no adequate municipal drinking-water service and it is common that the water is provided by small water communities, where drinking water systems are not regulated and sometimes being sourced from contaminated water tables.
The monitoring of Water quality as compared to the United Kingdom is not done, standards are generally not enforced and decision making process regarding drinking water quality and supply alternatives remains with the individual (Sundry, 2005) A developing country as set out by International Monetary Fund, is a country with low levels of output, living standards and technology (Madeleine et al, 2009). The author noted that globally, 3. 3 billion illnesses and 5. 3 million deaths occur annually as a result of unsafe water (WHO, 2000), and more than 1. Billion people in developing countries lack safe drinking water and 2. Billion- half of developing world’s population- lack basic sanitation necessary for reducing water related diseases, the parameters taken for granted by those in the developed world (Click, 1999). From a biological standpoint, water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life that set it apart from other substances. It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow replication. All known forms of life depend on water.
Water is vital both as a solvent in which many of the body’s solutes dissolve and as an essential part of many metabolic processes thin the body. The author acknowledges that the moment water as a source of life becomes contaminated, it threatens mankind and disease creeps in as stated by the World Health Organization. Despite foreign aid and increasing global wealth, the disparity between the developed and the developing world when it comes to water issues is forever increasing and it is the developing world that bears the brunt of this burden.
Decreasing availability, declining quality, and growing demand for water are some of the formidable challenges faced by many people in developing countries today. Population growth and economic development are significant driving forces in increasing water demand. Much Of the growth is the result of expected increases in the world population from 6. 6 billion currently to about 8 billion by 2030 and over 9 billion by 2050(Human Development Report, 2006).
Due to the population increase, intensive agriculture is practiced which accounts for more than two-thirds of global water use, with as much as 90 percent in developing countries. Release of agrochemicals following excessive fertilizers use has increased 10- fold since world warn and has become a non point source of water pollution hat degrades water sources (Crisis and Davison, 2004) Contamination originating from agriculture and pesticides transported by runoff is an increasing problem for small community wells and other water resources (WHO, 1997).
In developing countries, drinking water comes from various sources but mismanagement of these resources has led to their degradation. Inadequate protection of these water sources mainly in rural areas, improper waste management, and poorly designed waste facilities, have led to contamination of drinking water sources which in turn jeopardize water quality. The poorly covered shallow dug wells appose the greatest risk for contamination, and fecal contamination from latrines, septic tanks and farm manure are more common than for borehole wells, hence water quality would depend on where it is abstracted.
According to Harlan (2005), pit latrines within the vicinity of 30 meter radius from the water sources have been found to be the major contaminants through leaching of domestic waste into surface and underground water sources. 66% of people in developing countries have no toilets and tend to defecate in the open and 90% of wastewater is discharged without undergoing any treatment Postpone, 2002). Everyone et al (2009) in their study found a positive correlation of viral contamination (adenosine and retroviruses) and the presence of latrines within the vicinity of drinking water sources (29 meters and 50 meters).
Consequently, climate change affects water quality in a variety of ways, which in turn affect human health. Between 1906 to 2005, global surface temperature increased by about 0. Chic (EPIC, 2008 in Danish Water Forum, 2009). Global warming impacts on the hydrological cycle and systems, it leads to variations in precipitation patterns, intensity and extremes and melting of lacier (Danish Water Forum, 2009). Heavy rainfall and floods increase quantities of chemical and biological pollutants that are flushed into rivers and other water sources causing transportation.
Transportation causes growth of toxic algal blooms which contaminate water sources and affect people through poisoning which in turn results in problems like gastroenteritis (Heed, 1 999). Floods overload sewers and waste storage facilities which then drain and furthermore contaminate water sources. Access to clean water was recognizes as a key issue in development and was high on the agenda since August 2002. Although access to safe water is taken as a basic human right, this is not always the case for people in developing countries, where many people cannot even afford the minimum threshold requirement of 20 liters per person per day.
Most of the 1. 1 billion people categorized as lacking access to clean water use about 5 liters per person per day -one tenth of the average daily amount used to flush a toilet in a developed country (Human Development Report, 2006). Improving access to good quality and quantity of water has been the ultimate goal for most countries and many organizations but all have failed to meet ND satisfy the demand in the shortest time. Financial difficulties, poor knowledge on maintenance of water resources and vandalism are some of the major obstacles and pressures that make it difficult to meet these demands (Anywhere and Gauzing, 2009).
Success in addressing all of the above challenges would stand as a catalyst for progress in public health. 1. 1: Justification This paper will seek to justify and argue that access to a basic water requirement is a fundamental human right implicitly and explicitly supported by international law. The same belief is supported by Click (1998) who 1. Billion people in developing countries such as Zanzibar lack access to safe drinking water, a State Of affairs that has led to the fatal outcome Of high rates of morbidity and mortality, especially in children under the age of five years, due to water related diseases (Click, 1998).
The author notes that despite the recognition and increased formal commitments by many developing countries to the ideas and principles of sustainable development, implementation of policies and strategies that manage water resources for people, is still far from being the mainstream approach to water management. Studies by bodies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization and WFM International have been conducted to evaluate water quality and human health.
The conclusions from the studies have revealed that in places such as Zanzibar inadequate supply of good drinking water quality will for some time be recognizes as one of the biggest challenges facing the international community including the poor people in low income countries. It is sad to state that in developing countries the need to preserve or provide clean drinking water for the communities usually sakes the back burner particularly where African politicians are concerned mostly with self enrichment and personal gratification.
The author having grown up in Zanzibar can identify with the statements above and note that at one point when Zanzibar was regarded as the bread basket of Africa, the quality of water that was provided to its communities even rural areas was of a good quality to the point that neighboring countries such as Zambia and Malawi used to import water in addition to maize meal (staple food in Southern Africa) across to their people. The author notes that the declining trends in water quality will continue to hearten future water supplies in developing countries.
Given this scenario, it is imperative that a clearer and deeper understanding of the dynamics of water quality in developing countries is explored with the view to add to the body of knowledge regarding the drinking water issues. Studies of this nature are critical in identifying human health risks associated with continued limited access to safe drinking water. The continued lack of access to clean drinking water if not taken serious by governments in developing countries is likely to overtake the scourge from HIVE-Aids as it is likely to be the major cause of illness and death in much of the developing world.
The author notes that between 1990 and 2000, approximately 816 million additional people gained access to some form of improved water supplies; however, nearly 1 billion people in rural areas in the developing world still have no access to clean water and two-fifths of the world’s population lack access to adequate sanitation facilities (Revenge and Caesar 2000). 1. 2: Research Question The question this dissertation will answer is simply: How does poor drinking water quality affect human health in developing countries such as Zanzibar? Even that contaminated drinking water kills almost two million people per year with more than four thousand children dying every day due to lack of access to adequate supply of clean water (EUNICE, 2005). The study is focused on the following objectives: To review the emerging threat to drinking water quality from climate change and variability in developing countries. To review the availability of water in developing countries To review the accessibility of drinking water in developing countries To highlight on the quality of drinking water in developing countries To identify drinking water sources
To identify exposure sources of drinking water contamination To establish human health risks associated with poor drinking water quality- measured through morbidity and mortality rates. To identify the impact of poor governance and politics on the delivery of fresh quality water for the people 1 3: Scope of the Report The scope of this research will be limited to the provision of drinking water quality in Zanzibar and references made with neighboring developing countries such as Malawi, Zambia and Lesotho as comparatives. The science of water quality will be discussed only as far as it is linked to human health.
The water availability, accessibility, climate change impacts on drinking water quality, general quality of drinking water in Southern Africa and human health risks associated with poor drinking water quality will also be discussed. 2: Literature Review Literature review stands as a crucial paradigm that gives the researcher or reader a background of how research in a particular field has developed. It further highlights an awareness of other researchers’ work within the field of interest, enables one to compare results from different studies, map out gaps and make appropriate recommendations based on the analysis (Black, 999). N developing countries of Southern Africa, the author noted that microbial contamination of household drinking water is implicated in the prevalence of various diseases. This systematic review is concerned with two health outcomes that results from lack of clean quality water provision, general diarrhea and cholera, and their relationship with water quality at point-of-use. Observational studies investigating this relationship are reviewed, as well as studies of home water treatment and storage interventions.
Using Zanzibar as a reference case where documented shortages of clean water and annotation facilities resulted in the explosion of the cholera epidemic and dysentery. The author found a clear relationship within a circle of friends and family both in the urban and rural area who have been using contaminated water running through their taps but obviously not being treated by the water companies Critical review of the literature regarding drinking water quality in developing countries with application scenarios to Zanzibar will be done.
Essayer et al. (1985, 1 991 ) and Essayer (1996) analyses the relative contributions of different interventions to reductions in diarrhea. One intervention, ‘improving water laity, is shown to have a much lower effect than other interventions such as sanitation, personal hygiene (e. G. Hand washing) and increasing water quantity. However, these reviews focus upon source water quality improvements rather than improvements at point-of-use.
A recent comprehensive review of storage and treatment of household water (Sobs 2002) recognizes the need for more fields testing of various interventions that have shown promise in the laboratory however such advanced measures cannot be made readily available to developing countries by virtue of the political landscape that prevails. The availability of clear water and sanitation is otherwise used as a pawn by hopeful politicians who will jump to get votes and claim personal glory.
A lot of nongovernmental organizations in developing countries who would have sourced international aid to improve the provision of clean water often find that the bureaucratic process is not easy to evade even if it is agreed worldwide that the provision of water is a fundamental right to every human being. In many developing countries, potable water is collected from communal sources which are either unimproved (e. G. Unprotected wells, unprotected brings, and rivers) or improved (e. G. Protected wells, boreholes and public standpipes) (WHO/EUNICE, 2000).
Such sources can be substantial distances from the households, particularly in rural areas. The author noted that microbial contamination Of domestic drinking water during and after collection from the source has been recognizes as a problem for such households, occurring even where the water sources are uncontaminated. Such post-source contamination results in poorer water quality in storage vessels within households. Some have argued that this post-source contamination may negate the health benefits of new water source installations (MUSM et al. 1999).
In contrast, Vanderbilt & Brioche (1993) have argued that other fecal-oral routes, such as pathogens consumed in food or dirty hands, may be more important than drinking water in causing disease. The author agrees with these authors argue that immunity is acquired to familial pathogens through repeated exposure, but as such immunity does not protect against source pathogens, these are a greater risk to health. However, this argument ignores the fact that immunity to familial pathogens develops slowly and, as a result, post-source contamination may still affect he health of very young children, especially during weaning. :1: Climate Change and variability as an emerging threat to drinking water quality -Overview Humans are now making unprecedented changes to the global environment. Economic development has been fostered by the use of fossil fuels but the accompanying accumulation of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide and methane, has implications for the world’s climate and the availability of water particularly in Southern Africa where semi arid desert conditions already prevail.
The author noted that in the first world the change in climate as been monitored as far back as the 1 sass when temperature records began, the world has warmed by approximately 0. ICC, largely in the last 3 decades. The same cannot be said for developing countries where interest in the climate change and its effect and impact to the availability of water is only being felt due to prolonged droughts and increased desertification is some areas of Iambi and Botswana. The challenges Of climate change are substantial especially in developing countries because of their high dependence on climate sensitive natural resource sectors for livelihoods.