In today ‘s globalised economic system, Small-to-Medium Enterprises ( SMEs ) are confronting of all time increasing competitory force per unit areas. They need to derive new market information and cognition to stay competitory. To increase consciousness about their public presentation they need to see rational capital. The chief purpose of the article is to supply a model to utilize Skandia Navigator in mensurating SMEs public presentation and to heighten consciousness of SME enterprisers sing the value of rational capital in their companies. Paper designs a execution model which can be applied to SMEs.
Cardinal words: Skandia Navigator, public presentation direction, little and average endeavors, rational capital
Interest on public presentation measuring has notably increased in the last 20 old ages. Particularly, it is of import to observe the development of concentrating public presentation from a fiscal position to a non-financial position.
The demand for companies to aline their public presentation measuring systems with their strategic ends is good documented in the literature [ ( Kaplan, 1983 ) , ( Eccles, 1991 ) , ( Kaplan and Norton, 1992 ) , ( Oliver and Palmer, 1998 ) , ( Sharma, May 2005 ) ] . These attacks have been designed chiefly for usage in a medium to big company context. SMEs exhibit distinguishable features that differentiate them from the bulk of their larger opposite numbers ( Storey, 1994 ) .
Although extended research has been carried out to look into the demands and features of public presentation measuring systems in big organisations, there is a distinguishable deficiency of published research on issues related to SMEs ( Hudson, Smart and Bourne, 2000 ) . Consequently, there is a demand to put up the relevancy of bing public presentation measuring attacks for SMEs and to place a suited procedure for the design and execution of strategic public presentation measuring systems in this context.
A public presentation measuring system is a balanced and dynamic system that enables support of decision-making procedures by garnering, lucubrating and analysing information ( Neely, 2002 ) . To placing the characteristics of an effectual public presentation measuring development procedure, it is besides critical to gestate the content of such a procedure in footings of public presentation step features and appropriate dimensions of public presentation. This is important because a development procedure needs both construction and relevant content to supply value efficaciously to concerns.
This paper will seek to accommodate the system for placing rational capital Skandia Navigator to be used as a public presentation measuring system in the SMEs.
Skandia regards its Navigator as a future-orientated business-planning theoretical account. The Skandia Navigator, which shows similarities with the balanced scorecard, was developed in 1994 to supply Skandia with a measurement and coverage tool. It makes proviso for historical measurings ( fiscal focal point ) , present twenty-four hours measurings ( client and procedure focal point ) and the measurings required of a future organisation ( reclamation and development focal point ) ( Skandia, 1998 ) .
The Skandia Navigator was developed at the Swedish fiscal services company Skandia by a squad led by Leif Edvinsson ( Edvinsson and Malone, 1997 ) . It incorporates the given that rational capital represents the difference between market and book value of the company. Leif Edvinsson developed a dynamic and holistic rational study describing theoretical account called the Sailing master with five countries of focal point:
Fiscal focal point captures the fiscal result of our activities.
Customer focal point gives an indicant on how good the organisation meets the demands of its clients via services and merchandises.
Procedure focal point captures the existent procedures of making the services and the merchandises which our clients desire.
Renewal and development focal point purposes at reassuring the organisations long-run reclamation and in portion its sustainability.
Human focal point is the bosom of the organisation and is indispensable in an organisation that creates value. It is besides indispensable that the employees are happy with their work state of affairs ; satisfied employees lead to satisfied clients, bettering the company ‘s gross revenues and consequence.
This new accounting taxonomy sought to place the roots of a company ‘s value by mensurating concealed dynamic factors that underlie “ the seeable company of edifices and merchandises ” ( Edvinsson and Malone, 1997 ) . Harmonizing to Edvinsson and Malone, Intellectual capital encompasses the applied experience, organisational engineering, client relationships and professional accomplishments that provide Skandia with a competitory advantage ( Edvinsson and Malone, 1997 ) .
Edvinsson and Malone argue that rational capital represents such a basically new manner of looking at organisational value that it will ne’er be limited to playing a auxiliary function to traditional accounting ( Edvinsson and Malone, 1997 ) . Edvinsson considers rational capital chiefly as the concealed values representing the spread between market value and book value. The equation is:
Market value = Book value + Intellectual capital. ( 1 )
In 1992, when Skandia started stocktaking of the concealed values of rational capital, a list dwelling of more than 50 valuable points such as trade Markss, grants, client databases, IT systems, or cardinal individuals was compiled. Since the list was perceived as excessively long and unwieldy, points had to be grouped into fewer but decisive classs, the human dimensions, and the structural dimension, which led to a simplified definition of rational capital:
Intellectual capital = Human capital + Structural capital. ( 2 )
Fig.1. Skandia ‘s Value Scheme
Beginning: Roos, Roos, Dragonetti and Edvinsson, 1997
The dimensions that are “ left buttocks when the staff has gone place, ” harmonizing to Edvinsson ( Roos, et Al, 1997 ) , are referred to as structural capital. He highlighted the fact that human capital can non be owned, it can merely be rented. Structural capital, on the other manus, may be owned or traded from a stockholder ‘s point of position.
The Skandia Navigator study uses up to 91 new rational capital prosodies plus 73 traditional prosodies to cipher the five countries of focal point doing up the Navigator theoretical account. Edvinsson and Malone concede that assorted indices may be excess or of changing importance ( Edvinsson and Malone, 1997 ) . The following tabular array sum up some of these prosodies.
Edvinsson and Malone support direct counts to be compared with other direct counts to bring forth ratios or be transformed into money go forthing merely two types of measuring ( Edvinsson and Malone, 1997 ) . Monetary steps are combined utilizing a pre-determined weighting to make an overall rational capital value ( C ) for the organisation. Percentages, that can be considered steps of rawness, can be combined to bring forth the coefficient of IC efficiency ( I ) that captures the organisation ‘s “ speed, place, and way ” . An organisation ‘s IC represents a multiplicative map of the two amounts, C and I.
Organizational Intellectual Capital = I x C ( 3 )
When seeking to come up with a pecuniary value of an organisation ‘s IC, Edvinsson and Malone recommend cut downing the figure of indices available to make a more penurious step ( Edvinsson and Malone, 1997 ) . They note that Navigator ‘s five “ focal points ” have 36 pecuniary steps that cross-index each other. They besides recommend multiplying out the denominators in those that are ratios e.g. , “ value added/employee ” , and excepting from a concluding list any redundancies and entries that are found on the traditional balance sheet Their scrutiny leaves them with 21 indices which they believe can move as rational capital measurings for a financial twelvemonth.
Skandia ‘s theoretical account is peculiarly impressive in acknowledging the function of client capital in making value for an organisation and how the really nature of client relationships has changed. Skandia besides provides a wide coverage of organisational structural and process factors with its focal point on procedure and reclamation and development parts to organisational value that has non been attempted before. Lynn ( 1998 ) points out that Skandia assigns no value to its rational capital, but uses proxy steps of rational capital to track tendencies in the false value added.
Leibowitz and Wright ( 1999 ) and Kaes ( 1999 ) knock the Navigator for the undermentioned grounds:
There is an amalgam of both quantitative and descriptive steps without a common footing of measuring.
The steps are infused with subjectiveness that is hard to generalise over organisations. Kaes goes every bit far as to state that the usage is limited because of the unstandardized attack that underlies the index.
There is an unequal intervention of the external environment, i.e. the sole focal point on clients.
The inactive rational capital flows are non incorporated.
The index was designed specifically for a service company which limits its pertinence to other industries.
In add-on to the unfavorable judgment expressed by Kaes and Leibowitz and Wright, it is besides necessary to add that, although the Navigator is seen as the benchmark in mensurating intangible assets, the battalion of mensurating elements is non appropriate in the given environment. It besides does non look to do proviso for the full image within the context of this research, which is in all chance due to the fact that the company backgrounds differ to the extent that they do.
Compared to the Balanced Score Card theoretical account, where the steps are more or less prescribed, the Navigator ‘s foregrounding doctrine allows for multiple fluctuations. The implicit in doctrine is to supply the highest degree of flexibleness within a defined model. Skandia wants the Sailing master to be a tool for plotting a manner instead than a elaborate guideline. The inside informations can be filled in subsequently as direction steers the concern toward run intoing its strategic ends. Being flexible and idiosyncratic to the demands of the measurement unit, the Navigator ensures that the full concern negotiations rational capital, while at the same clip leting each mensurating unit to develop its ain apprehension. ( Bontis, 1998 )
To implement Skandia Navigator at SMEs degree I propose an instrument that would give top-management of the companies a tool for mensurating public presentation in a dynamic and holistic manner. Based on a literature reappraisal, I developed a process for implementing Skandia sailing master in little to medium sized companies. The process prescribes a top down attack that derives indexs from the strategic theoretical account of the house. Fig. 2 shows the four stages described by methodological analysis.
In the strategic mold stage, top direction will follow concern ends and cardinal success factors following a common workshop puting. These concern ends and cardinal success factors will be communicated to operational direction who so select the suited indexs for company to do the theoretical constructs mensurable. In the measuring stage, informations will be so collected for the chosen indexs. After a measurement rhythm had been completed, the informations will be analyzed, presented to exceed direction and interpreted supplying feedback.
Although there was widespread credence of the value of strategic public presentation measurement evident among the directors of the SMEs studied, none had taken stairss to redesign or update their current public presentation measuring systems. This suggests that there are significant barriers to strategic public presentation measuring system development in SMEs.
The Skandia Navigator is a aggregation of intangibles measurings methods, pioneered by Leif Edvinsson at Skandia. The Navigator comprises a holistic position of public presentation and end accomplishment. The architecture of the Skandia Navigator is simple yet really sophisticated. Therefore I consider that it can be used to mensurate public presentation at the SMEs degree, foregrounding the full value of the company. SMEs directors must choose indexs relevant to their sphere and their size.