Leadership an individual achieve their full potential

is a key role within any working environment, the job of a leader is to achieve
an objective while ensuring the organisation is united. Nortouse’s (2007) definition
is that “leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of
individuals to achieve a common goal”. Leaders apply their knowledge and skills
to help an individual achieve their full potential this is called process
leadership (Jago, 1982).  To become a
leader there must be an honest understanding of who you are and what you are
capable of but to also be approachable, successful and have self-belief so that
individuals believe in you (U.S. Army, 1983).  


Where as a coach has similar
objectives to a leader they want the best for the participant and will help
them achieve the goal. It is a known fact that coaching is challenging role
especially when trying to develop the progress of an individual, it can be a
long commitment to ensuring the individual gets the best possible outcome the purpose
is to accomplish personal and organisational goals (Berg, 2006). Coaching can
also be viewed as a partnership relationship base or a mutual trust between the
coach and the individual just by having a conversation this could include
asking questions and receiving feedback, coaches are motivated to reach
personal objectives based on their own personal values (Randak-Jezierska,

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In contrast, a facilitator is
not in charge of ensuring the lessons runs smoothly the facilitators role is to
ensure that they are able to provide the opportunities and are able to meet the
needs of the individuals within the group. A facilitator needs to ensure that
they keep a clear mindset and to not let the power of the role side track them which
will cause them to lose track of their targets. The role does not control,
direct, impress, command neither influence the actions of others. As a
facilitator there are five key roles identified by Schwarz (2002). The
facilitator according to Hunter (2007) is to guide the group of participants
and help them achieve the agreed purpose. Martin, Cashel, Wagstaff, and Breunig
(2006) encourage outdoor leaders to clear up with their participants what their
roles and responsibilities are. As a facilitator they need to take the
necessary steps to ensure that they catering for the needs of the individuals
they are looking after this could consist of ensuring that the activity suits
the groups needs and ability but also ensuring that they have the equipment needed
to participate, while also ensuring that they are not taking over the situation
they are just ensuring a safe and work friendly environment.  A key role within facilitation is to ensure that
people are kept on track and that they are progressing and not just staying
within their comfort zone this could be from a coaches point of view of an individuals
point of view it’s key that the facilitator can look at ways to progress with either
short or long term goals. However an appointed facilitator has the responsibility
for monitoring which initiatives, if any, are needed to keep things on track,
at any particular time.



The first theory is transactional leadership also known as managerial leadership focuses on guidance, organisation and performance. This
approach allows leaders/companies to maintain obedience using a reward-penalty
system. The exchange of praise and reprimand can promote a fixed mindset within
the organisation (Bligh, 2015). This style of leadership emerged through quick minimalistic
transactions between numerous leaders and followers. The market place consists
of “flexibility, adaptability and time cost benefit breakdown” (Burns,
1978).  Disputes continue regarding
relationships amongst transactional leadership and effectiveness within a range
of environments. Today’s foundation shows leadership within in the range of a
leadership models (Bass & Riggio 2006). A select few of researches
reprimand transactional leadership such as Burns (1978), who disagreed that
transactional leadership methods allow short term of change with the leader. Leaders must drive performance within the organisation to
ensure that the individuals have a clear understanding and can confidently move
forward within the company and ask questions if necessary. The values of the organisation
should remain true to themselves and focus on what they want to achieve.  


 In comparison transformational leadership concentrates
motivating employees through inspiration and promoting accomplishing goals for
self-interest. Transformational Leadership which is the most
current and popular type of leadership that has been one of the main focuses
since the early 1980’s. This leadership is part of the ‘New Leadership Model
(Bryman, 1992). The term transformational leadership was first invented by
Downtown (1973) the importantance began when working with a political
sociologist named James MacGregor Burns titled it leadership, Burns (1978)
attempted to link the roles of leadership and followership into his work. Burns
wrote “Leaders as people who tap the motives of followers in order to better
reach the goals of leaders and followers” (p.18) for Burns leadership and power
are quite different because it is conjoined from the followers needs. An
example where transformational leadership can be used in an outdoor setting is
when an individual is struggling to put up a tent and the leader will focus on
helping that individual improve and once that goal has been achieved the group
in initially become stronger.

This type of leadership gives
more attention to the elements of outdoor leadership and the effectiveness of
it. In the years Lowe and Gardener (2001) raise a point that almost one third
of the research has been about transformational leadership. Bass and Riggio
(2006) proposed the reason why transformational leadership popularity has
increased is down to its highlight of intrinsic motivation and follower
development, This fits the needs of work groups who wish to be inspired and
empowered to succeed in times where they feel uncertain. Transformational
leadership research to date focuses on investigating main effects and less
attention has been on identifying whether transformational is more or less
effective (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, & Bomber, 1996). Several functions, which
are a part of this transformational leadership are emotional development, moral
principles, professionalism and long-term aspirations. This leadership strategy
accommodates the individual/ groups motives, meeting the needs of clients as
well as providing equality. Transformational leaders want to achieve collective
goals and earn the trust of their followers to accept them, this type of
leadership will back up their followers by encouraging them to achieve their
goals, they will also acting as a role model by promoting teamwork and inspiring
individuals to work together. (Podaskoff, MacKenzie, Moorman & Fetter,
1990). Having a strong connection within the work place allows employees to ask
questions about the organization plan, because they have a right to know
everything. Faith in the leadership is necessary for motivation to recognize
with the organization and to personalize its ideals (Podsakoff, 1990).

In comparison
to transactional leadership there is a reduced risk of receiving a penalty
which relieves workplace anxiety and encourages a growth mind-set. The
effectiveness of transformation leadership is heavily dependent on the application
of communication between leaders and followers (Bass 1985; 1990; 2000; 2008;
Burns 1978).  The interchange in ideas
sustains the organisations direction and potentially could improve customer
service, increase production and reduce costs (Sadeghi & Phihie, 2012).


A number of
scholars criticize leadership theories because of the one-style fits all
approach to the leadership theory development that neglects evidential and
circumstantial factors associated with organisational challenges (Beyer, 1999;
Yukl, 1999; 2011; Yukl & Mahsud, 2010). From the research, which has
been carried out a transactional approach was successful, where the
organisation enforced regulation while maintaining the employees are motivated
by rewards. It is suggested that although the work environment is generally
more stressful in an organisation adopting the transactional leadership theory
but the abundance and quality of work is greater (Bligh, 2015). The
transformational approach promotes employee error as a result of advocating creativity
and supressing discipline.


Another theory is behaviourism
also known as the behavioural theory is a leap from the trait theory as that
this theory speculates that leadership can be learned rather than it being
inherited. This theory believes that a leader can become an competent leader
through observation, teaching and experience. For women working in the outdoor
indsutry, the empowerment of females is fundamental for practise. According to
Susan Mboya (2014), “empowerment is taking full control over one’s own life”. While
also ensuring that they are leading in a professional manner. Theorists such as
B.F. Skinner, John Watson and Kurt Lewin contributed to the development of
behavioural theory. Lewin (1935) had argued that within this theory there are
three types of leaders: 2autocratic, democratic and lasses-faire”. The autocratic
leaders makes the decisions without having any input from the individual they
make the choice based on what will suit the groups needs the best and what will
benefit the group. The democratic leader gives the group an option and let’s
them figure out between themselves what they would like to do, an example being
letting the group choose what route they would like to climb on the mountain
while also ensuing the safety of the group and ensuring the group is cable able
of the route they have chosen. The third leadership role of laissez-faire and this
is where the group makes the decisions and only asks the leader for help if it
is needed or the leader steps in when it’s not safe. Lewin believe that all
leaders can flick between each of these roles depending on the group and situation.

Similar to the theories above
is the trait theory which states that leaders are born (Shead 2007), the trait
leadership theory is a concept that individuals are born with leadership qualities
and assertive traits. Assertive traits are linked with efficient leadership in
order to become an effective leader, the individual needs to be able to make decisions
and take control. Ethics are essential in providing key leadership because all leaders
need to adhere to the same values as each other. This ensures the success of achieving
the same goals and aspirations. Leaders must respect one another and other
individuals be able to commentate effectively and efficiently reach the desired
goal. A good leader will admit their mistakes along the way, as a leader
understands that everyone has to start somewhere. They understand that individuals
learn from their mistakes and make developments order to improve. The trait
theory infers that individuals are born as leaders or not born to be leaders. There
are several theories that all share the same understanding that individuals are
born to be leaders and believe that they are born with personality traits which
will guide them to be a good leader. Stoghill (1948) highlights that one does
not become a leader by conveying a mixture of traits but by their personal attributes,
but the importance of a leader is their attitude towards to activities and aspirations
followers. He goes on to identify several factors which are associated with
leaders: personal judgements, attainment, being a good role model and
confidence. On the other hand theorists such as B.F. Skinner would argue that
leadership is engrained in a person genetics (Skinner, 1974, p. 167).