INTRODUCTIONThe and place a short strip of

INTRODUCTIONThe term pH is used to signify the concentration level of
hydrogen ions in an aqueos solution. pH can be said to be the logarithm of the
reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration in gram moles per litre. In a
neutral solution like water, the hydrogen ion H+ and the hydroxyl ion OH- concentrations are equal, and each is equal to  . a pH of 7 is neutral. A decrease in pH below
7 shows an increase in acidity, while an increase in pH above 7 shows an
increase in alkalinit. The pH can be determined either using the colorimetric method or the electrometric method. Colrimetric Method (pH Paper).                The
pH paper is impregmated with dyes that exhibit different colours when exposed
to solutions of varying pH. High concentration of salt in the sample can alter
the colour developed by the dyes and cause the estimate of pH to be unreliable.                      Procedures for Colorimetric Method1.      
Tear off and place a short strip of pH
paper on the surface of the sample.2.      
After the colour of the test paper
stabilizes, the colour of the upper side of the paper, which has not contacted
the mud, is match against the standard colour chart on the side of the
dispenser. Results1.      
Report the value of the pH using the
standard colour chart as aguide to the nearest 0.5 pH unit. Remarks1.      
When the chloride concentration is
greater than about 10,000 mg/l, pH paper does not give an accurate measurement.2.      
Do not stick the pH paper or stripes into
the fluid sample.3.      
 The pH of mud filtrate may be etaken and
sometimes gives a faster colour change, but the pH of the filtrate may differ
from that of whole mud.                               Electrometric
Method                The pH meter is an instrument
that determines the pH of an aqueos solution by measuring the electro potential
generated between a special glass electrode and a reference electrode. The
electromotive force (EMF) generated across the specially formulated glass
membrane has been found empirically has been found empirically to be almost
linear with pH of the solution.The
meter has a range of 0-14 pH unit , with accuracy and repeatability = 0.1
pHunit   PROCEDURE1.      
Push the ON/OF key to turn the meter on.2.      
Push the pH/mV key until the annunciators
indicate the desired mode.3.      
Temperature compensations can be set manually by
the temperature adjustment over a range of 0 to 100 C.4.      
Rinse the probe with distilled water and immerse
the probe into the solution to be measured. Allow 60 to 90 seconds for the
reading to stabilize.                               MAINTANANCE1.      
Never let the probe tip become dry.2.      
If the tip of the probe is dry and the cap has
been left off, dip the probe in potassium chloride (KCl) solution for 30
minutes3.      
When the electrode is not in use, replace the
cap which should be filled with KCl or equivalent storage solution.4.      
Do not use distilled or deionized water for
storing under any circumstance.5.      
The glass bulb is the sensitive part of the
probe and should always be kept clean6.      
If KCl is not available, use 4.00 pH buffer,
7.00 pH buffer or tap water                         PROCEDURESAMPLE 11.      
Measure 35g of bentonite on the weighing
balance.2.      
Measure 350ml of water with the measuring
cylinder.3.      
Mix using the electric mixer to get a smooth
homogenous mixture.4.      
Place a short strip of pH paper on the surface
of the mixture.5.      
Determine pH using pH meter.6.      
Push the pH/mV key until the annunciators
indicate the desired mode.7.      
Place the glass probe into the mud sample and
wait for seconds to get the readings from the meter.8.      
Rinse the probe with distilled water and immerse
the probe into the solution to be measured. Allow 60 to 90 seconds for the
readings to stabilize.   SAMPLE
21.      
Measure 35g of bentonite on the weighing balance.2.      
Measure 350ml of water using the measuring
cylinder.3.      
Measure 4g of Cacl2 and add to the water and
bentonite and mix thoroughly 4.      
Repeat procedures 4-8 from sample 1                 RESULT

SAMPLE TYPE

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FINAL TEMPERATURE C

Ph reading pH paper

pH reading pHmeter

Sample 1

25.1

9

9.24

Sample 2

26.6

7

7.31

                            CONCLUSIONWhen a mixture has a pH above, it has an increasing
alkalinity and when it has a pH of 7 it is neutral and when your pH is below 7
it shows increasing acidity. Salt also increases the acidity of a mixture.  REFERENCEMr seteyobot ifeanyi practical manual

Dr okoro pet 315 lecture note