health’s main focus is on the “development of work organizations and working
cultures in a way, which endorses safety and health at job and also promotes
smooth operations and a positive social climate and may increase productivity
of the undertakings (Joint ILO/WHO committee on occupational health, 1950).
Employers should promote such working environments which reduced medical cost
and motivate employees by providing healthy and safe work environment because
increased job performance of workers associated with healthy and safe work
environment. “Psychosocial work environment” is one of the most critical
predictors of job performance which is showed by two famous psychosocial job
stress models for example “Job demand-Control” and “effort reward imbalance”.
In recent times these two stress models were integrated and developed into the
Job demand and resource model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). The job demand
and resource model emphasis organizational outcomes including job performance
through two different processes. One process states that high job demands
reduce job performance through reduced energy and health. Second process states
that high job resources increases job performance through increased work
contract breach also affects both the mental and physical health of employees.
When the important obligations are not met by the employers then PCB works as a
psychosocial stressor at work that shows crucial risks to employees’ health
(Mareike Reimann & Guzy, 2016). Psychological contracts are considered to
be an important term for understanding modern employment relationships as well
as employment behavior in general (Conway & Briner, 2005: Guest 2004: Zhao,
Bravo, & Glibkowski, 2007). Empirical
studies have represents that psychological contract breach enhances employees’
burnout (Chambel &Olivrira-Cruz, 2010) and is negatively associated with
psychological well-being (Conway &Briner, 2002). According to effort-reward
imbalance model an imbalance in employment relationship that acts as a
psychological work stressor that leads to negative emotions and perceived
stress which in turn lead to damage employee physical and mental health
(siegrist, 1996). In short, psychological contracts unwritten implied contracts
refer to employees expectations regarding mutual exchange agreements with their
employers implying that employees expect from the organization to meet certain
obligations. If employees feel that their expectations are not fulfill by the
employers, researchers stated that this psychological contract breach lead to
the experience of job strain.
event theory (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) explains the relation between
employees internal influences for example cognitions, emotions and mental
states and their reactions to events occur in their work environment that
effects job performance, organizational commitment and job satisfaction.
AET is a psychological model that explains the relationship between emotions
and feelings in the work place and job performance, job satisfaction and
behaviors. According to AET theory, employees’ emotions and moods are guided by
the events that occur at workplace. The theory explains that if employees’
expectations are not met by the employers their job satisfaction level goes
down and they will not show the positive behavior at work. AET also explains
different employee behaviors like organizational citizenship behavior counter
productive work behavior and job withdrawal. In short, when employees face
uplifts (receiving an award) or hassles (dealing difficult clients) at work
their intention to quit or continue depends upon their moods, emotions and
thoughts linked with the satisfaction they derive from their workplace. If
workers are not satisfied, they will not show the positive behavior because
unmet expectations cause psychological contract breach. Emotions help to
explain the organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work
behavior for example emotions about one’s job. Organization always required
workers who not only show the high level of performance in their tasks but they
also engage in behavior that is not directly required from formal job
descriptions (Bolino &Tumely, 2005). Organizational citizenship behavior is
highly valued by the employer (Organ, Podsakoff, Mackenzie, 2006). On the other
hand counterproductive work behaviors are less ideal workplace work behaviors
when employees go against the legitimate interests of an organization. Counterproductive work behaviors can harm the
organizations or people of organizations including customers and employees.
the thesis will investigate the relationship between job demands and job
resource with OCB and CWB. When job demands are increased then level of energy
of employees goes down due to stress and they will show the negative behavior
like CWB. If the job resources are increased then the level of energy of
employees goes up and they will show the positive behavior like OCB.
the thesis will investigate the relationship between job demands, job resources
and job performance like OCB and CWB with mediating role of psychological
contract breach. Due to excessive job demands the pressure will increase on
employees that they do not expect from the organization so due to this
psychological contract breach occur and employee will show the negative
behavior like CWB. On the other hand job resources decrease the pressure on
employees because their expectations regarding job are met by the employer so
PCB will not occur and they will show the positive behavior like OCB.
OBJECTIVES AND AIMS:
first objective is to check the relationship between job demands and OCB.
second objective is to investigate the relationship between job resources and
third objective is to investigate the relationship between job demands and OCB
with mediating role of psychological contract breach.
fourth objective is to investigate the relationship between job resources and
CWB with mediating role of psychological contract breach.
fifth objective is to investigate the relationship between job demands and CWB
with mediating role of psychological contract breach.
sixth objective is to investigate the relationship between job resources and
OCB with mediating role of psychological contract breach.