Harbours as they can be damaged from

Harbours and ports use breakwaters in order to provide a
safe and calm environment for the ships and boats. If the waves entering the
harbour have a larger wave height and wave speed, then the vessels inside the
harbour will not be safe as they can be damaged from the energy transferred
from the waves. That is why construction of breakwaters in harbours have much
importance. The function of breakwater can be expressed simply as following
manner. Breakwater acts as a barrier to the waves that tries to enter the
harbour. Breakwater absorbs the most of the energy waves carry and it allows
some waves which carry lower energy. That is why the waves which passes through
a breakwater carries a lesser speed and a amplitude. Which is favourable
condition for the ships harbourage.


In my research I consider only the breakwater construction
in fishery harbours. There are 19 existing fishery harbours in Sri Lankan
Coastal belt. And there are 10 proposed harbours. Suduwella Fishery Harbour is
under constructions. All these fishery harbours are under the administration of
Ceylon Fishery Harbour Corporation. All these fishery harbours have breakwaters
as a main component.

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There are two main types of breakwaters used in Fishery
harbours in Sri Lanka.

1.      Conventional
rubble mound breakwater

2.      Concrete
armour breakwater ( Currently only Dikkowita fishery harbour have this type of


In my research I focus on conventional rubble mound
breakwater construction in Fishery harbours as it is the most commonly used
breakwater type. After the construction of the breakwater, the suitable wave
amplitude of the harbour basin should be about 3m. A fishery harbour can
consist of one or many breakwaters depending on the layout of the location.


We have to consider the feasibility of the rubble mound breatwater
construction, before the project starts, as the breakwater carries the main
cost component of the fishery harbour development. If the cost outweighs the
benefits of the project, we should not starts the project in the first place.





Problem Statement


In Sri Lanka,
when a fishery harbour is constructed, the major cost part belongs to the
construction of  the breakwater.
Currently there are no specific method to calculate the total cost which will
occur to build a conventional rubble mound breakwater. If we could provide a
method to derive the rough cost of the rubble mound breakwater we are going to
build, that will be very easy for the decision makers to get an idea about the
feasibility of the project.


Significance of
the research


As Sri Lanka is
an island which consists of a large sea coastal belt, a lot of people depend on
the fishery industry. So the people who go fishing using the fishing boats and
ships must have safe harbour facilities in order to carry on their livelihood in
a proper and a safe manner. Sri Lankan coastal belt consists of so many
suitable locations for the fishery harbour constructions such as Gandara,
Kalamatiya, Mulathivu etc. Ceylon Fishery Harbour Corporation may have to use
these locations in order to construct fishery harbours and provide the relevant
facilities for the people who live on fishery industry. For that they may need a
method to pre-identify the costs which may occur for financial and decision
making purposes.


From my
research outcomes, there will be a method to derive a “cost per unit”
value for the conventional rubble mound breakwater that is going to be
constructed. Since the breakwater carries the major cost part in the fishery
harbour project, the stakeholders will be able to come up with the rough cost
part for the breakwater.


Scope of the


A study must be
carried out in order to get an idea about the conventional rubble mound
breakwater design. Details must be gathered from the relevant parties like
Ceylon Fishery Harbour Corporation and the companies who involve in
constructing fishery harbours in Sri Lanka. Then a method should be derived in
order to get a “cost per unit” value for the breakwater.


Second part of
the research is to verify the  outcome of
the research. Details of the completed breakwaters must be obtained from
relevant parties and compare the research result with the actual cost
values.  Then necessary corrections must
be taken for the research outcome.


Aims and
Objectives of the research


1.      Learn
the design of rubble mound breakwater which is used in fishery harbours in Sri

2.      Identify
the materials and costs related to the construction of a breakwater.

3.      Data
analysis in order to derive a “cost per unit” value for a breakwater.

4.      Verification
and summarization of the outcomes of the research.



1.      Literature
review- Read other research papers in order to find out what others have done
so far on cost assessment of rubble mound breakwaters.

2.      Learn
on how to design a conventional rubble mound breakwater for a fishery harbour,
including the materials used and the relevant costs.

3.      Gathering
the information from the existing and under construction projects of fishery

4.      Analyzing
the data collected and do the research in order to get the outcome.

5.      Verifying
the outcome result and carry out necessary corrections for the output of the
research project.