Education, in its broadest sense, refers to the ways in which people learn skills and gain knowledge and understanding about the world, and about themselves. One useful scheme for discussing education is to divide these ways of learning into three types — formal, informal and nonformal. Formal education is instruction given in school. It is often called schooling. In most countries, people enter a system of formal education during their early childhood. In this type of education, the people in charge of a school decide what to teach, and learners then study those things under the direction of teachers.
Learners are expected to come to school regularly and on time. , to work at about the same speed as their classmates, and to pass tests to show how well they have progressed. At the end of the year, successful learners move up to the next level, that is, to the next standard, form or grade. In the end, they may earn a diploma, a certificate, or degree as a mark of their success over the years. Informal education involves people learning while they go about their daily lives. For example, young children learn language simply by hearing others speak and by trying to speak themselves.
In the same informal manner, they learn to dress themselves, eat with acceptable manner, ride a bicycle , make a telephone call, or operate a television set. Education is also informal when people try to find out information or to gain skills on their own initiative without a teacher. To do so, they may visit a book shop, library, or museum. They may watch a television show, look at a videotape, or listen to radio programme , or go into net. They do now have to pass tests. Nonformal education belongs somewhere between the formal and informal types.
As in formal education, people using nonformal methods adopt planned and organized programmes. But nonformal education procedures are less tightly controlled than those of formal systems of schooling. For example, in countries whose population have included many people who could neither read nor write, a popular nonformal approach to literary has been the each-one-teach-one method. With this methods, educational leaders first prepare simple reading materials, then ask every individual who already can read to teach just one illiterate person to read the materials.
After the illiterate has mastered the skill of simple reading, he or she must then teach one others illiterate person. By this nonformal approach, thousands of people have learned to read in such nations as China, Nicaragua, Mexico, Cuba and India. Mostcountries spend a large amount of time and money to provide formal education for their citizens. At the end of the 1980’s , there were about 950 million students and 45 million teachers throughtout the world. This article deals with formal education as provided by school, colleges, universities, and other such institutions.
Other organizations, such as the church, also provide formal education, for example at the seminaries or convents. The Scout and Guide movements provide a type of nonformal education. The school systems of all modern nations provide both general education and vocational education. Most countries also provide special education programmes for handicapped or gifted children. Adult education programmes are provided for people who wish to take up their education after leaving school. General education aims at producing intelligent, responsible, well-informed citizens.
It is designed to transmit a common cultural heritage rather than to develop trained specialists. Almost all elementary education is general education. In every country, primary school pupils are taught skills they will use throughtout life, such a reading, writing, and arithmetic. They also receive instruction in a variety of subjects, including geography, history and science. In most industrial countries almost all young people continue their general education in secondary school. In most western nations, advanced general education is frequently called liberal education.
Liberal education aims at board mental development . it teaches a student to investigate all sides of a question and all possible solutions to a problem before reaching a conclusion or planning a course of action. The branches of learning that aid in this development are called the liberal arts. These branches include the humanities, mathematics, and the biological, physical, and social sciences. Vocational education aim primary at preparing individuals for a job. Some secondary school specialize in vocational programmes.
Technical schools are vocational secondary schools that are specially equipped to teach more technical subjects, such as carpentry, metalwork, and electronics. Technical school students are also required to take some general education sourses. Technical colleges and specialized schools offer advanced vocational and technical training. Universities and separate professional schools prepare students for careers in such fields as agriculture, architecture, business, engineering, law, medicine, music, nursing, pharmacy, teaching and theology.
Many businesses and industries offer formal vocational training for their employees. Special education provides educational opportunities for handicapped or gifted people. Most countries support special education programmes for people who are blind, deaf, emotionally disturbed, physically handicapped, or mentally handicapped. Some local school systems also aid gifted students. Adult education . Most countries support general and vocational education for adults, often through evening classes. Continuing education programmes allow adults to continue their formal education or develop a skill or hobby.
Courses range from elementary reading and arithmetic to advanced commercial, technical, and professional training. Million of adult participate in some kind of adult education. Universities in many countries provide extension courses, which give adults an opportunity to take courses at the college level. Businesses, community agencies , correspondence school, hospitals, industries, trade unions, libraries , museums, prisons, computer, and television stations provide various organized educational opportunities for adults.
Most countries divide education into various stages. Formal education begins with early childhood education and continue through elementary(or primary), secondary, and higher education. Most countries, except for the United State and Canada, have an educational system that is wholly or partly run by the central government. Nation vary greatly in the kind of education they provide and in the amount of schooling they require. They also vary in their ability to provide teachers and schools and in their manner of controlling and supporting education.
Some nations, including most of those Europe and North American, have well-developed economies and long-established education systems. Almost all children in these industrial countries receive at least an elementary education , and most also receive a secondary education. As a result, the industrial nation have high literacy rates (percentages of citizens who can read and write). Most have a serious shortage of teachers and classrooms. Many children do not receive even an elementary education. Many nation provide early childhood education in nursery schools and kindergartens.
In almost every nation, primary education is compulsory and free. In very country, primary schools teach children to read and write and to work with numbers. The pupils also learn their country’s customs and their duties as citizens. In most countries, the pupils also study such subjects as geography, history, and science. The school systems of most countries provided more than one kind of secondary school. For example , students in most European countries may attend a general school, which specializes in academic subjects, or they may attend a vocational school.
Some vocational schools prepare students for advanced vocational or technical training. Others train students to enter a business or a trade immediately after their graduate. In many European countries, secondary school students may take jobs and complete their education by attending part-time course. In many countries, students take an examination to determine, what kind of secondary school they will attend. On the basic of these examination, some students are admitted to academic schools. Which prepare them for advanced studies in a university. Other students are admitted vocational schools.
Some countries operate a system of comprehensive schools in which academic and vocational and technical subjects are taught at the same school. In the field of higher education, most countries have at least college or university. The industrial countries of Europe have many colleges and universities. Some of them hundred of years old. Most of these countries also have advanced technical and professional schools. In almost every country, students must complete their secondary education and pass an entrance examination before being admitted to an institution of higher learning.
Almost every nation has some types of school for the handicapped. Most countries also provide for adult education at all levels. Many developing countries support programmes that teach adults the necessary skills of reading and writing. Boarding school students live at school during the term rather than at home. Europe has many boarding schools that are for the children of well-to-do families. Some educators believe that social value can be taught more effectively if students live at school. It is also claimed that such an arrangement helps the family by making it easier for mothers to work.
In some countries , al education is public (state-run and state-financed) . private schools )schools that charge tuition fees) are prohibited. Other countries have both state-run and private school. In most of these countries, the majority of primary and secondary school children attend public schools. In most nations, the central government has at least some control over the state school system. In France, the national government has complete control over it. A national ministry(department) of educational decides all questions of educational policy and is responsible for local state schools.
In many other countries, including most European nations, the central government exercise strong control over certain aspects of the educational system through ministries. But the ministries transfer some administrative responsibilities shares control of education with local authorities. Nation provide public funds for education in various ways. In general, three different methods are used: 1. In most countries, including almost all heavily populated ones, the national government shares the cost of education with other levels of government, such as states or provinces, countries, and cities.
In many of these countries, such as Belgium, France, and Italy, the national government supplies most of the funds. In many others the funds come mainly from lower levels of government. 2. In other countries, the national government pays all the expenses of public education. These countries including Brazil, Iran, New Zealand, Peru, and African nations. 3. In India and a few other nations, provincial, state, or local authorities provide all the fund. Many countries obtain additional funds for public education from tuition fees, voluntary contributions, and other private sources.
Some developing nations receive foreign aid for education. Some nations provide free education at every level. In Britain, for example, students may have all their educational and living expenses paid until they have completed their higher education. But only highly qualified students receive this privilege. Education in Malaysia. In Malaysia government aided schools provide formal education free of charge. The education system consists of four levels: primary, secondary (divided into lower and upper secondary), post-secondary, and tertiary. Children attend primary school from the age 6.
In Malaysia’s national primary schools, pupils receive instructions through the medium of Bahasa Malaysia, the official national language of Malaysia. They learn English as a second language. Children in Chinese and Tamil schools are taught in the Chinese and Tamil languages respectively. Malaysian children begin attending secondary school at the age 12. Secondary education usually lasts for five years. It is conducted entirely in Bahasa Malaysia. At the age of 12, pupils take an examination for UPSR(Unit Peperiksaan Sekolah Rendah), and at the age of 15, pupils take examination for PMR(Peperiksaan Menengah Rendah).
Those who finished their PMR examination, they will complete their upper secondary education and at the age of 17, take the SPM (sijil Pelajaran Malaysia). Pupils who are successful in this examination may study for further 2 years for STPM (Sijil Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia, which they need if they wish to enter university. Other pupils may attend vocational of technical secondary schools . or college. Education was only able to develop among human being after the invention of spoken language during prehistoric times. Communication and therefore teaching through the medium of a language was far more effective than use of gestures and signs.
Young people in prehistoric societies were educated through apprenticeship; imitation, and rituals (ceremonies). Through apprenticeship, a young person learned, for example, how to build a shelter by working with an older, experienced master builder. Through imitation, young people acquired the language and customs of adults. Through the performance of rituals, they learned about the meaning of life and the ties that bound them to their group. Young men, often had to take part in initiation ceremonies. If the young man passed the test, he was ready to play a responsible role in society. (Source: The world book encyclopedia and internet )