High-Performance Work Systems Essay

“ If you want people to make a good occupation, give them a good occupation to make. ”

Introduction

Employee resourcing ensures that the administration obtains and retains the people it needs and employs them expeditiously ( Armstrong, 2006 ) . Employees stay with administrations because effectual HR patterns provide a supportive work environment, therefore, it is imperative that administrations develop effectual policies that enable them to enroll, choose, and retain competent employees ( Mullen, 1997 ) . One of the cardinal inquiries in all administrations is how to acquire employees to execute good. Most authors have established that the basic foundation for retaining high executing employees is to hold them motivated ( Steer et al. , 2004 ) . This is because a motivated employee is likely to execute better. Robbins ( 1993, p. 32 ) defines motive as the “ willingness to exercise high degrees of attempt toward organizational ends, conditioned by the attempt ‘s ability to fulfill some single demand. ”

Many authors on public presentation argued that employee motive is widely believed to be a cardinal factor for public presentation of persons and administrations and is besides a important forecaster of purpose to discontinue the workplace ( Steer et al. , 2004, Tzeng, 2002 ) . Based on this, one of Frederick Herzberg ‘s celebrated quotation marks is: “ If you want people to make a good occupation, give them a good occupation to make. ” This paper discusses this statement.

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Early Theories of Motivation: Maslow and Herzberg

One of import motivational theory is Maslow ‘s Theory, which claims that human demands are ordered in a hierarchy: physiological demands, safety demands, belongingness and love demands, esteem demands, and self-actualisation demands ( Maslow, 1954 ) . Lower order demand must be at least partly satisfied before a higher order demand is pursued. The lone actuating demand is an unrealized demand. At the lower terminal, the company can utilize extrinsic motive, as evidenced by their great reward power. With extrinsic motive, it means that workers are motivated by touchable wagess such as high wage.

Herzberg ‘s motivation-hygiene theory is frequently is referred to as the two-factor theory because of the double nature of its attack to placing the beginnings of occupation satisfaction, and finally occupation motive ( Miner, 2007 ) . Herzberg ‘s research produced a list of factors that contribute to satisfaction at work, which he called motive factors, and another separate list of factors that contribute to dissatisfaction, which he called hygiene factors. In this theory, Herzberg et Al. ( 1959 ) suggested that certain intrinsic factors motivate behaviors, such as accomplishment, acknowledgment, the work itself, duty, promotion, and growing, while extrinsic factors de-motivate workers and this means that the things that cause satisfaction are non the same things that cause dissatisfaction, such as company policies, salary, dealingss with colleague, and supervisory manners. For illustration, the footings of appraisal and publicity, the sensed equity of the determination devising procedure is important for committedness and therefore directors should clearly pass on clearly how determinations are made and why some people and non others did acquire publicities ( Herzberg, 1987 ) . Herzberg ‘s extrinsic ( hygiene ) factors are similar to Maslow ‘s physiological and safety demands and include factors such as supervising, working conditions, and salary. On the other manus, Herzberg ‘s intrinsic factors are similar to Maslow ‘s higher order demands and include factors such as acknowledgment, accomplishment, and the work itself.

Overall, Herzberg argued that there are a set of characteristics that should be built into occupations to do them fulfilling and actuating. This is because that extinguishing the causes of dissatisfaction ( hygiene factors, which are non intrinsic to the content of the work itself ) would non take to occupation satisfaction, it would merely extinguish occupationDissatisfaction ( Herzberg, 1987 ) . Workers can merely be satisfied and motivated if motive factors are used. Thus, based on this he argues that staff motive can be increased by presenting basic alterations in the nature of an employee ‘s occupation. This ‘job enrichment ‘ can be achieved by redesigning occupations to let for increased challenge and duty, chances for promotion, and personal growing, and acknowledgment.

It is of import to observe that Herzberg et Al. ( 1959 ) argue that if the basic factors are losing ( hygiene factors ) , such as appropriate degrees of fiscal compensation, workers will be disgruntled irrespective of whether other factors are present. For this ground, some people have put accent on fiscal inducements. Yokels and Adams ( 2003 ) argue that one manner to actuate staff within an administration is through the usage of inducements. Incentives, they argue are a agencies to favor certain behaviors in order to make defined aims and are of import because they can act upon cardinal determiners of public presentation and can promote people to remain on a occupation. Whilst this statement may be true, inducements are in assorted signifiers and different people prefer different signifiers of inducements. Therefore, though an administration may offer good inducement strategies such as payment of tuition fees for external classs, those staff who are no longer interested in farther instruction may non happen these as good inducements and may non be motivated to work.

Newer Theories of Motivation: High Performance Work Systems

In more recent times, research workers have put all these thoughts about doing work more motivative together and theorised what a ‘high public presentation work system ‘ would look like. It is argued that high public presentation work systems would affect

… enlisting patterns which aim to pull and choose extremely committed and flexible people, internal labor markets which reward committedness and preparation with publicity and occupation security, and methods of direct communicating and team-working ( Wood and de Menezes, 1998, p. 488 ) .

Pfeffer ( 1998 ) identifies seven patterns of successful administrations. The first is employment security, which he argues is indispensable to underpin the other high-commitment HR patterns, chiefly because it seems unrealistic to inquire employees to offer their committedness and difficult work without some outlook of security on their portion. The 2nd pattern is selective enlisting, which is seen as a valuable manner of gaining ‘human capital advantage ‘ by engaging exceeding persons and “ capturing a stock of exceeding human endowment ” ( Boxall, 1996, p. 66-7 ) as a beginning of competitory advantage. Third, after enrolling outstanding endowment, employers need to guarantee that these people remain at the head of their field and so extended preparation, acquisition, and development are necessary. Marchington and Wilkinson ( 2005 ) note that this is one of the most widely quoted and of import elements of high committedness HRM.

The 4th pattern is team working, which has become more omnipresent for a assortment of grounds and it is now identified by most employers as a indispensable edifice block in their administration. Fifth, Pfeffer ( 1998 ) identifies high compensation contingent on organizational public presentation as an of import component. This means that employers need to supply employees with ( 1 ) above mean compensation and ( 2 ) performance-related wages, which both indicate to employees that they deserve to be rewarded for superior parts.

The 6th pattern is the decrease of position derived functions, such as shared canteens, which signals to all workers that they are valuable assets who deserve to be treated in a likewise to more senior staff. Finally, Pfeffer ( 1998 ) states that high-commitment HRM includes information sharing and employee engagement. This is because unfastened communicating about fiscal public presentation, scheme, and operational steps conveys the message that employees are trusted. Besides, for team-working to be successful and employees are to be encouraged to offer thoughts, it is indispensable that they have information upon which to establish their suggestions and cognize something about the fiscal context in which their thoughts are to be reviewed.

Overall, it can be argued that this theory of high-performance work systems incorporates both actuating and de-motivating factors and provides directors with a templet as to how to cover with this together. While it does non specifically speak about how the occupation itself is to be designed, it does look that workers in such a system would be given increased challenge and duty, chances for promotion, and personal growing, and acknowledgment, all things that Herzberg argued are needed to actuate workers and do them execute at a high degree.

Discussion and Decision

Harmonizing to Herzberg, those factors that lead to occupation satisfaction are separate and apart from those that lead to occupation dissatisfaction. Therefore if the house tries to undertake factors that create occupation dissatisfaction, such as salary, they can convey about peace but will non needfully actuate workers ( Robbins, 1993 ) . This means that ‘if you want people to make a good occupation, give them a good occupation to make, ” instead than merely seeking to cover with de-motivating factors. Overall, this means that the administration as to make more to actuate workers than merely compensation, good working conditions, and similar factors. Alternatively, occupations have to be enriched so that workers have chances for accomplishment and acknowledgment, stimulation, duty, and promotion ( Herzberg, 1987 ) .

However, while the thought that people with ‘good occupations ‘ would execute better is intuitively appealing, existent research support for some facets of the theory is patchy. Furthermore, it may besides be culturally specific. Hofstede ( 1980 ) points out that civilization influences factors that motivate and demotivate behavior. He reports that individualistic, productivity-oriented civilizations ( such as the United States ) concentrate on socio-technical systems and new methods to better the quality of working life. Outside the United States, Hines ( 1973 ) reported that supervising and interpersonal relationships in New Zealand seem to lend significantly to satisfaction and non merely to cut downing dissatisfaction, neglecting to retroflex findings in the United States. In general, the catholicity of Herzberg ‘s two-factor theory can non be presumed. Each civilization has some factors that act as incentives and others that act as hygiene factors. These factors and their comparative importance appear peculiar to each civilization. Directors should be cognizant of that, and should non say that their experience is catching.

In drumhead, it is clear that motive theories in usage today are Western in their beginning and many have been developed in the United States or at least influenced by American theoretical work. However, constructs such as accomplishment and regard may hold different significances in other societies. The American individualistic civilization has led research workers to set accent on rational and single idea as the primary footing of human behavior ( Boyacigiller and Adler, 1991 ) . The theories accordingly do non give cosmopolitan accounts of motive ; instead, they reflect the value system of Americans ( Hofstede, 1980 ) .

Mentions

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Herzberg, F. , Mausner, B. , and Snyderman, B. ( 1959 ) .The Motivation to Work. New York, NY: Wiley.

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Hofstede, G. ( 1980 ) .Culture ‘s Consequences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

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Maslow, A. ( 1954 ) .Motivation and Personality. New York, NY: Harper & A ; Row.

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Tips, R. , Modway, R. , and Shapiro, D. ( 2004 ) . The hereafter of work motive theory.Academy of Management Review, 29 ( 3 ) : 379-387.

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