Prior to doing my diet analysis, I always estimated I needed around 3,000 calories given the amount of lifting and exercising I performed on a weekly basis. I came to this estimate by keeping track of my calories in and roughly how much I used during exercise and daily activities. However, this was a rather rough estimate due to the fact that it was difficult for me to know exactly how many calories were burned during my workouts. I found out my estimation of 3,000 calories per day was pretty close to what my DRI stated after completing the diet.
For my personal DRI, it suggested I needed roughly 3,276 calories each day. I also used energy balance assignment to figure out the number of calories I need each day since using a DRI calculation is not enough to accurately determine my calorie intake. The DRI also does not take into consideration of your personal thermic effect of food and fat distribution. By combining both of these methods I was able to get an accurate number for the calories my body demands. 2. (a) 45. 9% calories from carbohydrates (b) 23% calories from protein (c) 31. 4% calories from fats
My percentages from carbohydrates, protein, and fats fall right into the recommended ranges when comparing them to the percentages provided by my profile DRI and the percentage ranges from our text book. 3. (a) 20. 3 % of my calories came from simple sugars. (b) The top 4 food sources that contributed to my simple sugar intake were skim milk, Hershey’s chocolate syrup, strawberry yogurt, and Wheaties Fuel. (c) Added sugars are sugars and syrups used as an ingredient in the processing and preparation of foods. The majority of my added sugars come from the Hershey’s chocolate syrup I use when I make chocolate milk.
The recommended amount of added sugars in the diet is less than 10 %. (d) Yes, my sugar intake is excessive because it is 20% of my total calories. This is unhealthy because over a long period of time this can lead to diabetes and obesity. 4. (a) 31. 4% of my calories come from fat (b) The top 4 items that contributed the most to my total fat intake were; double cheeseburger/fries from Burger King, olive oil, fried chicken wings, and eggs. (c) Looking at my total fat intake it would be considered an adequate amount because my intake percentage falls into the recommended range for total fat intake. d) Yes, I do believe I consume an appropriate amount of monounsaturated fat because 38% of the fat I consume on average is monounsaturated fat. Although there is not a recommendation for an actual percentage you should be getting of monounsaturated fats, I believe 38% is higher than the average person and it almost the majority of my fat intake. However, I would like to get that percentage up to around 45-50% because of the health benefits monounsaturated fats provide. As far as potential health consequences go I think I am at a very safe level of consumption regarding monounsaturated fats.
At 38% there are no bad consequences, only positive ones such as an increased protection from heart disease and the lowering of blood cholesterol levels. The majority of my monounsaturated fat consumption comes from olive oil. Some other contributors are; hash browns, eggs, and tilapia. To ensure my level of monounsaturated fats is appropriate, I am going to continue cooking with olive oil rather than butter and I am also going to start eating more nuts such as almonds. (e) Looking at my intake for omega-3 fatty acids, I can see I am getting an inadequate amount. On average I am only consuming . 3 g which is only a little over half of the amount I should be getting. There are not any serious health consequences with the amount I am currently getting but by increasing my omega-3 fatty acid intake there are many health benefits. Some include; reduce risks of heart disease, prevent blood clots, and lower blood pressure. To ensure I get the appropriate amount of omega-3 fatty acids, I am going to focus on consuming more fish such as salmon and tuna. I am also going to increase my intake of walnuts and the use of vegetable oils. By eating these omega-3 fatty acid rich foods I would like to see my intake levels rise to around 1. g/day. (f) I consume an inadequate amount of omega-6 fatty acids because I am only getting 61% of the amount that is recommended by my profile DRI. There are some serious health consequences with a significant deficiency of omega-6 fatty acids. However, infants and young children are affected in nearly all cases. In my situation there are not any health consequences I should be concerned with while getting 61% of the recommended amount of omega-6 fatty acid. To make sure I am getting enough omega-6 fatty acids, I need to increase my use of vegetable oils and continue to eat a lot of meat. g) Personally I believe my trans-fatty acid intake is adequate. My average shows 1. 5 grams per day but that is only because I ate a double cheeseburger and fries from Burger King one of the days. Other than that I had zero trans fat intake on the two other days and rarely foods with trans fat. With that said there are definitely zero health consequences associated with my intake of trans fat. Like I said the two contributors to the 1. 5 grams is due to the double cheeseburger and fries. To ensure I keep my trans-fatty acid levels as low as possible I will make sure to avoid fast food and other deep fried foods. 5.
Carbohydrates (a) Carbohydrates is an extremely important nutrient for the body. They provide glucose which is used by the cells in the body for energy. All the cells in our body depend on glucose and without an adequate amount of carbohydrates, our body is forced to turn to other sources for energy which can be a bad thing. It can cause the body to go into a state of ketosis because since there is a lack of glucose in the blood the cells starve and ketones are formed. On the other hand, having the recommended amount of daily carbohydrates has positive benefits such as reduce risk of heart disease and long lasting energy. b) Taking a look at my carbohydrate intake, I can see that I am getting the right amount of CHO that my body needs. Potatoes, bread, soup, bagels, and Wheaties Fuel cereal are the majority contributors to my carbohydrate intake. These five food items all provide a decent amount of carbohydrates but there is better options I need to look for when it comes to my choice of carbohydrates. The better choice would be to turn to unrefined complex carbohydrates. For example, oats, brown rice, legumes, and wholegrain options are all great sources of unrefined complex carbohydrates. c) By examining my intake levels I feel as though I am getting enough carbohydrates that I do not need to worry about any health consequences. I am at the lower end of the recommended amount so it would not be any harm to increase my intake level by 100 grams. (d) Although I do not have a deficiency in carbohydrates I can still make some simple changes to improve the quality of carbohydrates I am putting in my body. Instead of eating Italian bread I could switch to a wholegrain or whole-wheat bread that will provide me with a higher amount of fiber and both are good sources of unrefined complex carbohydrates.
Another modification in my diet would be to eat oatmeal for breakfast instead of a sugary cereal. Protein (a) Protein has many of different roles in the body and having a sufficient amount of them is very important. Protein is known for its role in growth and maintenance in the body. They mainly support the growth and repair of tissues but also have vital roles in enzymes, hormones, fluid balance, transportation, antibodies and glucose/energy. Without the adequate amount of protein the body can suffer in the functions of these eight key roles and also can lead to more severe protein deficiency diseases such as Maramus and Kwashiorkor. b) Looking at my personal intake of protein, I am getting too much even with my high activity level. I am taking in 188 grams of protein per day which is three times the recommended amount. The reason for this high intake is because I lift heavy 4-5 days a week and always thought the more protein the better. However, I have learned this is not true and too much protein can actually have negative effects. Even using the highest recommended intake for athletes (1. 7g/kg/day) I still am getting 60+ grams of protein over the suggested amount. There are several foods that have contributed to this very high excess of protein in my diet.
I consume a lot of meat along with a high number of dairy products such as milk, yogurt, and eggs. Then on top of all of that I using have a protein shake before I go to bed with contributes an additional 24 grams of protein. (c) Since I have an excess amount of protein I am taking in there are indeed some health consequences in concern. Diets with very high protein intakes have been shown to be related to several chronic diseases. Some of these diseases include heart disease, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. The most common and most notable of these is heart disease.
With a high protein diet you usually are consuming a large amount of meat and dairy products. Both of these types of food are rich in animal protein meaning they also have a higher level of saturated fat content. Consuming large amounts of saturated fat over a long period of time greatly increases your chances of developing heart disease. (d) Seeing that I have an excess amount of protein in my diet I plan to change this in two ways. First of all I am going to cut out the protein shake before bed. This simple change will lower my daily intake by 24 grams along.
Also I am going to cut back on the amount of meat I consume and replace it with some unrefined complex carbohydrates such as brown rice. This way I am decreasing my protein intake but replacing it with a great source of carbohydrates that I need. Water (a) Water is essential nutrient for everyone and you must have it in order to survive. Water makes up 60% of our body weight and has many key roles in the body. It is responsible for the transportation of nutrients throughout our body. Without water important structures like protein and glycogen would not be able to maintain their structures.
It also maintains blood volume, serves as a solvent, regulates homeostasis, and participates in metabolic reactions. It is one of the most important nutrient for our body. (b) I try to drink around a gallon of water every day which is 3. 78 L. Looking at my DRI I am getting even a little more than that, consuming around 4 L daily. One of the main reasons I drink this much water is because I take creatine for lifting. It is suggested that at least a gallon per day of water is necessary when taking creatine but I try to get a little more just to be on the safe side. c) Although my intake of water is a little more then the recommended amount, I think it is necessary due to the fact I am also taking creatine. There are no health consequences noted with drinking 4 L of water daily. (d) I do not think I need to modify the amount of water I currently drinking. I think it is a very safe level and I am getting the right amount for my body. Vitamin D (a) Vitamin D plays a huge role in the maintenance of blood calcium concentrations and bone growth. The unique thing that separates vitamin D from all the other vitamins is it can be synthesized in the body.
It does this with the help of sunlight. I currently am getting too much vitamin D in my diet which there are some concerns with toxicity. (b) My current intake of vitamin D is three times more then the recommended value from my DRI. By examining my DRI I found the different reasons for why my intake is so high. The number one contributor to my excess level of vitamin D comes from the large amount of skim milk I drink daily. The Wheaties Fuel cereal also has enough vitamin D in one serving to get all the vitamin D you need in a day. (c) Since I do have a excessive intake of vitamin D there are ome health consequences that cannot be completely ignored. There are toxicity issues when you get above the UL. Your concentration of blood calcium levels can increase and lead to kidney stones. The other issue is calcification of arties which is extremely dangerous in the brain and heart because it could cause death, (d) The major modification I am going to have to make in order to get my vitamin D intake closer to the recommended amount is to not drink as much milk. For example, instead of having a 18 oz glass of milk with my dinner I could only pour myself 8 ounces or just drink water with my meal.
The other change could be drink less milk on the days where I eat Wheaties Fuel cereal because the cereal alone has all the vitamin D needed for one day. Saturated Fat (a) Saturated fat is commonly called “bad fat”. This type of fat is the kind you want to avoid as much as possible. The significance of my intake of saturated fat is not excessive and therefore does not effect my health negatively. There are many of downsides to consuming too much saturated fat but luckily with my current diet I do not have to worry about that very much. (b) My current intake of saturated fat is 28. grams per day which is considered an adequate amount for me. My profile DRI recommends I get no more then 32grams per day which I am following. The contributors to my adequacy is mainly staying away from fried and processed foods as much as possible. If I do eat something high in saturated fat I make sure to limit it to one meal a day. (c) With the amount of saturated fat I currently consume there are no health consequences I need to worry about. (d) Since I do have an adequate saturated fat consumption I feel there are only a few modifications that need to made in my diet.
For one I would like to completely eliminate fast food from my diet. Fast food usually has more saturated fat then meals you would make at home. By choosing to cook a meal myself I am saving money and lowering the amount of saturated fat I consume considerably. Cholesterol (a) My intake of this nutrient is a little too high for the amount that was recommended on my DRI. It suggests that I get no more than 300 mg of cholesterol daily. I currently average about 616 mg each day which is over double of what I should be taking in. (b) The main food items that have ontributed to my excess amount of cholesterol were fish, poultry, and eggs. The tuna and tilapia contained around 190 mg combined. However, the poultry (wings, chicken breasts, and double cheeseburger) contained 547 mg of cholesterol. But the highest came from the eggs. The total cholesterol between all the eggs I ate was 840 mg. (c) The main health consequence I need to be concerned with is the risk of cardiovascular disease that comes with having high cholesterol. This can lead to heart attacks and strokes which account for the majority of cases regarding high cholesterol. d) I need to lower my cholesterol and get it into the recommended range suggested by my DRI. Looking at the top three contributors to my excess cholesterol I can see I need to consume less of each food item. For example, instead of eating 2-3 eggs I could eat one and add a banana or a bowl of strawberries to my meal. Dietary Fiber (a) My intake of dietary fiber is lower than where it should be and I would like to get it up to the recommended 38 grams per day. Getting an adequate amount of dietary fiber is important and comes with a lot of positive benefits. Proper amounts of fiber can help prevent heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes. b) Although I am not getting enough fiber in my diet there are still a few foods that contribute to my intake. The majority of my fiber comes from bananas and potatoes. The best source of dietary fiber that is in my diet is Wheaties Fuel which contains 10 grams of dietary fiber. (c) There are not are not any serious health consequences that I need to worry about with the amount of dietary fiber I am getting now. There are more health consequences that correlate with excess amounts of fiber. (d) Since I am not getting enough fiber in my diet there are some things I need to modify.
When I look at all the foods I am taking in there are a few foods that I am missing that are some of the best sources for fiber. First and far most I can see I am lacking significantly in the fruits and vegetable department. Most of my meals contain a lot of protein, a decent amount of carbohydrates but not really any fruit and vegetables. If I could just add in a serving of fruits and vegetables into my meals I would be able to get the right amount of fiber I need on a daily basis. Vitamin C (a) Vitamin C is the most frequency consumed vitamin and is essential to get the recommended amount.
Some of its main functions in the body are collagen synthesis, antioxidant, and amino acid metabolism. My personal intake of vitamin C is very close to the recommended amount. My DRI suggests I should be getting about 90 mg per day and my actual intake is 102. 2 mg. (b) By examining my diet I was able to find exactly where my vitamin C sources were coming from. My top three contributors to my vitamin C intake were orange juice, bananas, and potatoes. To know no surprise orange juice was by far my best source of vitamin C. (c) There are no health consequences with my current intake of vitamin C.
I am right around the recommended amount. (d) I do not feel that I need to make any changes to my diet to alter the amount of vitamin C I am currently getting. I always try to drink a cup of orange juice in the morning and eat one banana sometime throughout my day. Sodium – (a) When people think of sodium they automatically assume any amount of it is bad. However, sodium like any other nutrient has value and key roles in the body. The main function of sodium is to maintain normal fluid and electrolyte balance. The adequate intake for sodium is 1500 mg per day. I would say the average person has trouble keeping below this value.
My average intake was shocking at 5,736 mg. This is definite concern to my health. (b) Since my intake was so high I was interested in seeing what food was contributing to this extreme amount of sodium. The highest contributing food was the wings I ate from Fricker’s. Fifteen wings racked up an astonishing 5,175 mg of sodium. That is just unbelievable when you think about it. Almost five times the recommended daily amount in one meal! (c) Since my intake of sodium is off the charts there are definitely some health consequences that need to be looked at more closely.
The most notable health issue related to high amounts of sodium is high blood pressure. This develops quite rapidly and sudden. Another problem often seen is edema. Both of these are very likely when a person has excessively high sodium intake. (d) There are some major modifications that need to be made in order to improve my current sodium levels. The most important thing is to eliminate deep fried foods. I have to avoid these types of foods at all cost. Instead of going out to a fast food place or getting wings I could take a visit to the grocery and get a well balanced meal to cook with a lot less sodium.
Potassium- (a) Potassium is another one of the major minerals we need in our body for several reasons. It primarily helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance in our body. It also helps to keep cell integrity. I would consider my levels of potassium to be adequate. My DRI suggests that I get 4700 mg of potassium daily and my actual intake is 4,386 mg. That is about 93% which is not bad at all. I would not consider myself to have a potassium deficiency that would raise any type of health concerns. (b) Looking at my diet analysis there are three major sources that are providing me with potassium.
The top three are skim milk, bananas, and potatoes. Since I consume more milk then bananas and potatoes, milk is my top source of potassium. (c) Evaluating my potassium intake I feel like I am at a adequate amount with 4,386 mg. This number could be a little higher but it is not bad by any means. With this being said there are no health consequences regarding my potassium intake. (d) There are a few modifications I could make to bump my potassium intake up to the recommended 4700 mg. For starters one thing I could easily do is add carrots as a snack between meals.
Or any other fruit or vegetable rich in potassium. Little tweaks such as that would give me that little extra amount I need. Calcium – (a) Calcium is a very important mineral and the most abundant in the body. Almost all of the body’s calcium is in the bones and teeth. Knowing how much milk I drink, I figured my calcium levels would be excessive since milk is the best source of calcium. The recommended daily amount for calcium is 1,000 mg and my actual intake is 2,154 mg. This is a high amount seeing it is over double the recommended amount but it does not exceed the UL of 2,500 mg/day. b) The number one contributor to my significance of calcium is without a doubt was skim milk. Just from my intake of milk alone I almost got all the calcium I need for the entire day. Yogurt and my protein supplement were my next two best sources of calcium. (c) Although my calcium intake is considered excessive it does not exceed the UL. But since I am only 400 mg away from the UL there are some toxicity concerns. When you get over 4,700 mg per day there are some problems you run into. First of all you can become constipated and run a higher risk of producing urinary stones.
Secondly, extremely high intakes of calcium interfere and cause problems with the absorption of other minerals. (d) Since my intake of calcium is a little high there are some modifications I must make. The easiest thing I can do is eliminate the extra protein shake right before bed. This alone would decrease my calcium intake by 600 mg daily which would put me down to around 1,554 mg. The other thing I could do is cut my serving of milk down by a cup. Iron- (a) Iron is usually in hemoglobin and its purpose is to carry oxygen in the blood for use in energy metabolism.
It is important to get the right amount because there are health consequences with having a iron deficiency and also getting too much iron is not good either. My current iron intake levels are a bit excessive at 20. 16 mg/day compared to the RDA of 8 mg/day. The UL for iron is 45 mg/day so at least I am still under that number. (b) There are many of foods that are causing my iron intake to be excessive. The best source of iron is from the Cherrios cereal. The next two highest sources are from two sources that are not very healthy, Fricker’s wings and Burger King’s double cheeseburger.
These are two foods I should eliminate from my diet which will help bring down my iron intake. (c) I do have an excessive intake of iron but it does not raise any major health concerns. If I were to get up to the UL of 45 mg/day I would have to be paying attention to the toxicity issues. Getting above that UL can cause an iron overload where you feel fatigue, joint pain, and GI distress. (d) I am going to cut out the fast food items such as the Burger King double cheeseburger and the Fricker’s hot wings. These are two very unhealthy foods and should not be a part of my diet anyways.
By eliminating items like these I will be able to begin to lower my iron intake to try to get closer to the RDA value of 8 mg/day. 6. Thiamin- There is no established UL for Thiamin. The main items that is causing my excessive amount of thiamin is the Italian bread, bagels, and my excessive intake of milk. There are no health consequences reported with my intake level of 2. 8 mg/day. There are two things I can do specifically to correct my excess intake of Thiamin. First if I eat a bagel in the morning for breakfast I should try to avoid eating Italian bread later in the day and vice versa.
The second thing I can do is cut down on the amount of milk I am drinking by a cup or two. Riboflavin- The RDA for me is 1. 3 mg/day and my intake is 4. 12 mg/day which is definitely considered excessive. There is no established UL for Riboflavin. Again the major contributor for this excessive intake has to do with the amount of milk I am consuming. There are no health consequences reported because there is no UL for Riboflavin. Obviously I need to cut back on the amount of milk I am drinking. Cutting back 1-2 cups/day should be effective. Niacin- The RDA is 14 mg/day and my intake of Niacin is 42. mg/day. Yes I do exceed the upper tolerable limit of 35 mg/day. Fish, poultry, cereal (Wheaties Fuel and Cherrios), milk, and bagels have the highest amounts of Niacin. There are some health consequences I have to deal with because I am above the UL. Some of the toxicity symptoms are; “niacin flush, nausea, vomiting, and possible liver damage. To correct this excessive intake I need to really make sure that I am not consuming all of these high niacin foods in the same day. For example if I eat a bowl of Wheaties Fuel in the morning I am not going to eat a bagel along with it.
Vitamin B6- The established UL for vitamin B6 is 100 mg/day. I was getting the major portion of my B6 from fish, chicken breast, and potatoes. The high intake of these three foods caused my B6 levels to be higher than normal. My vitamin B6 intake was only 3. 99 mg/day which is not near the UL. With this current intake level there is no health consequences I need to worry about. However, to improve my B6 levels I am specifically going to eat half the portion size that I normally do when it comes to fish, chicken, and potatoes. Vitamin B12- There is no reported tolerable upper limit level for vitamin B12.
My current intake was a bit excessive compared to the recommended value. Again the types of foods that caused me to have a higher level of B12 were fish, poultry, milk and eggs. I think my levels are excessive because I am over eating in these categories. Since there is not a UL there is no health consequences that are know for B12. To ensure I reduce my B12 intake down to an adequate amount I plan to substitute half of a portion from these foods and replace them with 1-2 servings of fruit or vegetables. Vitamin E- The UL for vitamin E is 1,000 mg/day. My current intake is deficient seeing that I am only getting 4. mg/day when I am supposed to be getting around 15 mg/day. The reason I am deficient is because I am lacking leafy green vegetables and plant oils in my diet. Red blood cell damage and nerve damage are the main concerns with having a deficiency of vitamin E. To ensure I raise my intake of vitamin E, I am going to eat a salad with my dinner each night and add 1 serving of vegetables into my diet. Magnesium – The UL for magnesium is 350 mg/day via a nonfood source. My current intake is about 378 mg/day which is a little below the recommended value but not bad.
The reason I am a little deficient is because I am lacking a adequate amount of nuts and legumes. My current intake is not low enough to have any health consequences. To ensure I raise my magnesium levels I am going to add 2 servings of almonds into my snack between lunch and dinner. Zinc- The UL for zinc is 40 mg/day. My current intake of zinc is below the recommended amount of 11 mg/day. The reason I am under the recommended amount is because I am not getting enough red meats in m diet. Since I am getting 86% of the recommended amount I am not at any risk of serious health consequences with zinc deficiency.
I would like to raise my zinc levels to get to the adequate amount and I am going to do this by eating some form of red meat 2-3 times/week. 7. (a) September 13, 2010- This was probably was my worst day out of the three. I was below the recommended amounts for grains, vegetables, and discretionary. I also was significantly above the recommended amounts for meat and beans. The two that were closest to the recommended values were my fruit and milk intake. September 14, 2010- I was below the recommended value on 4 of the 6 categories. The only one that was consistent with the recommended value was my milk intake.
Again meat and beans was extremely too high. September 15, 2010- This day was quite similar to the day before. Again 4 of the 6 categories were below the recommended values and meat and beans were way too high. The only difference was my milk intake on this day was also extremely high. (b) Overall on average I was not getting enough grains, fruits, or vegetables and getting too much meat and beans. My milk intake was the closest to the actual recommended value by the food pyramid. 8. (a) I would rate my diet a 5. (b) I would rate my diet a 5 because it is right in the middle.
I feel half of it is good and the other half needs work. Looking over my complete diet analysis I can see I am lacking or have to much in half of the nutrients but have an adequate amount in the other half. 9. Looking over my food diaries I can see my food schedule revolves around my work and classes. I basically eat any free opportunity that I can get. Also I feel like my diet is pretty consistent each day when I look over everything I am eating and when I am eating it. 10. Looking over everything I think the most positive thing about my diet is how close my actual calorie intake is compared to my DRI recommended intake.
I am less then 200 calories off which I feel is pretty good. 11. The major change I would like to make is to start getting enough fruits and vegetables in my diet. I am going to do this by adding a serving of fruit to my lunch and two servings of vegetables to my dinner. 12. I would have to say this is by far the most interesting project I have ever done. I enjoyed it and really learned a lot about what I am putting into my body and the effects those nutrients have for me. Reference 1. Whitney, Ellie, Eleanor Noss, and Sharon Rady. Understanding Nutrition. Wadsworth Pub Co, 2010. Print.