Coding similar words.One limitation of Baddeley’s study

Coding is the format information takes when stored in different memory stores. Baddeley (1966) gave different words to four groups of participants to research coding. Group 1 was given acoustically similar words, group 2 were given acoustically dissimilar words, group 3 were given semantically similar, and group 4 were given semantically dissimilar. The participants were shown the words and asked to recall them in the correct order. When asked to recall immediately, the participants recalled less of the acoustically similar words.One limitation of Baddeley’s study was that it used artificial stimuli. The words did not have any personal meaning for the participants. This suggests the findings of this study may not be generalisable to other memory activities. For example when processing meaningful information, people may use semantic coding, implying that the findings from this study have limited application and low external validity.capacity:Jacobs (1887) developed a technique to measure digit span. The experimenter gave a number of digits to the participant and asked them to recall in the correct order. If this is correct the experimenter will increase the number of digits until the participant cannot recall the digits in the correct order. This then determines the participants digit span. Jacobs found that the mean digit span was 9.3. For letters the mean was 7.3. Jacobs concluded the capacity on short term memory is seven plus or minus two. One limitation of this study is it was conducted a long time ago. This suggests it lacked control. For example participants may have been distracted while being tested, and so they did not perform at the best of their ability. This would mean the research lacks internal validity because there were confounding variables that were not controlled. However, Miller (1956) observed that things usually come in groups of seven. For example, days of the week and notes on a musical scale. Miller also explains that people can recall five words as well as five letters. They do this by grouping sets of information into chunks. From this he came to the conclusion that the capacity of short term memory is seven items plus or minus two, which supports the validity of Jacobs’ study