Climate refugees are a great challenge for
Bangladesh. Dhaka is a densely populated city in the world. There is no space
for the new comer. If the climate refugees also come here, it will be
intolerable. They may cause another pollution of Dhaka. They use open toilet
and open fire. They throw their garbage into rivers.
A huge migration of these refugees in Dhaka
city is now a regular phenomenon. But this type of displacement into Dhaka city
is a very alarming for the city dwellers since it increases the pressure on
existing system and challenges to the government. The improvement of slum not
only improves the living quality of urban poor people, but also supports the
adaptation measure of climate change. Now planned migration of climate induced
displaced is a present-day concern. Design of built environment including
infrastructure, sanitation facilities, etc. will advance healthy living removing
effects of haphazard growth and effects of environmental degradation.
Decentralization of some slum settlements to nearby cities can be considered if
located elevated above the water body like natural lakes, ponds, etc. The poor people
living in slums contribute to urban economy in many ways. To secure their
living standard socio-economically, their income (daily or monthly) should be
stable. According to the survey data, the most of them are daily laborer like
rickshaw puller, brick breaker, etc. heir income is very much susceptible to
some natural or man-made events like water logging in Dhaka city. According to
respondents, they often stay hunger until they earn something to eat. The sufferings
of such people considering recent and future urban hazards need to be
integrated during policy preparation.
The objectives of the study are
To identify why the refugees come Dhaka
Which hazards they faced in their locality
To assess the current situation of water, sanitation
and hygiene in slum areas
To find out how much threat they are for the
Chapter 2 Literature review and theoretical framework
2.1 Review of literature on Bangladesh context
Bangladesh has a long history of coping with disasters
during and after a cyclone. These coping capacities play a vital role to
survive in people’s ability. Rashid et al. (2006) conducted a study on the
coping strategies of household seeking after affected by a disaster to sustain
their livelihood. Three broad categories are classified:
for adjustment of decreasing household food consumption and relocating
household labor to develop present income
borrowing which refers to borrowing that is not secured by providing household
assets as collateral and
borrowing denotes borrowing against assets owned by the household
Here the current adjustment is most frequent
among these three strategies which are followed by the households.
There is a lack of documentation of
indigenous knowledge and practices which is found in the literature review. An
attempt has also been made to review how the govt. and NGOs influence coping
strategies. Mukherjee (2009) reflects on the seasonal gender-specific
vulnerabilities to show how the problems compound for poor woman in Bangladesh
during the deficit season.
The study del Niño et al.(2001) reveals the
coping strategies of household following the 1998 Hood including borrowing,
reducing expenditure and selling assets. Among them the major coping mechanism
of the household is borrowing in terms of both the value of the resources. To
cover the shortfalls of consumption, credit were sought from informal sources.
2.2 Basic human needs and vulnerability
Books and adger (2005) point out that the concept
of adaptive capacity makes sense in the context of what resources and systems
would be affected by climate change.
The U.S. Agency for International Development’s project
Famine Early Warning systems(FEWS 1999) focused its vulnerability assessment
guidance on food security.
Books et al. (2005) list 46 proxy variables;
the researchers specially include geography, governance, demography and
technology. They looked for correlations among these vulnerability proxies and
historical decadal mortaliu and derived from these results 11 key indicators of
vulnerability: population with access to sanitation, literacy rate (15-24 years),
voice and life expectancy at birth.
In contrast to Azar et al.(2005) this set of
indicators explicitly considers some aspects of reproductive health and gender
equity. These efforts at compiling indicators do not specify in their lists or
models the interactions and feedbacks among the factors in vulnerability.
2.3 Conceptual and Analytical Framework
To understand why a hazard becomes a disaster
and for whom, the concept of vulnerability is crucial. Using the concept of
vulnerability as a characteristic of exposure to hazards has allowed
researchers to evade the problems of what causes vulnerability (Canon 2001).
In social science, the human dimension of
vulnerability has received significant attention. A person’s vulnerability can
be identified by the interaction of natural events and economical, political
and social factors.
Canon (2001) points out that most usages of
the idea of vulnerability accepts that it is part of a continuum or ranking of people.
That vulnerability implies at the negative end of that scale.
Adger (1999) argues that vulnerability should
be seen as the exposure of a group or individual to stress because of the
environmental and social change .This definition contrast with the dominant
views of vulnerability to disaster.
2.4 Climate Change Scenario in Bangladesh and Development Issue
to IPCC in their recently published Fourth Assessment, the following changes
have been observed in climate trends, variability and extreme events
In Bangladesh, average temperature has registered an increasing trend of about
1°C in May and 0.5°C in November during the 14 year period from 1985 to 1998.
The annual mean rainfall exhibits increasing trends in Bangladesh. Decadal rain
anomalies are above long term averages since 1960s.
Serious and recurring floods have taken place during 2002, 2003, and 2004.
Cyclones originating from the Bay of Bengal have been noted to decrease since
1970 but the intensity has increased.
• Frequency of monsoon depressions and
cyclones formation in Bay of Bengal has increased.
Water shortages has been attributed to rapid urbanization and
industrialization, population growth and inefficient water use, which are
aggravated by changing climate and its adverse impacts on demand, supply and
Salt water from the Bay of Bengal is reported to have penetrated 100 km or more
inland along tributary channels during the dry season.
• The precipitation decline and droughts has
resulted in the drying up of wetlands and severe degradation of ecosystems.
According to Ahmed and
Alam (1999) the average increase in temperature in Bangladesh would be 1.3 and
2.6 by the year 2030 and 2075 respectively with respect to the base year 1990.
The temperature variation will be more in winter than in summer.
Karmakar and Shrestha
(2000), using the 1961-1990 data for Bangladesh, show that annual mean maximum
temperature will increase by 0.4°C and
0.73°C by the
years 2050 and 2100 respectively.
Bangladesh climate change strategy and Action Plan,2008
and updated 2009 is “Eradicate poverty and achieve economic and social
wellbeing through a pro-poor climate change strategy which prioritize Adaptation,
Disaster Risk Reduction; also address low carbon development and provision of
Climate risks for
Resources & Sectors affected
in rainfall patterns
Increased frequency and severity of:
in growing seasons and regions
Changes in water quality and quantity
Sea level rise
Infrastructure (e.g. transport)
Settlements: displacement of inhabitants and
loss of livelihood
response & recovery plans