Characteristics: In Optical Art, energy and forces are performed by using series of mathematical numbers and grids. In short, with colors and shapes transformed into a surface by using tricks to deceive the eyes, a spectator can sense strange movements and forces in the artwork.Bibliography: Eisenman, HJ 2013, ‘Op Art’, Salem Press Encyclopedia, Research Starters, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.Characteristics: In Futurism, industrialization, urbanization, and technology are indispensable. A unique visual language of Futurism is developed with forms of mechanic, and modern cityscapes representation. Making buildings and urban areas to have the appearances of machinery is what most of the futurists were trying to do with the Futurism art.Bibliography: Greene, JM 2016, ‘Futurism’, Salem Press Encyclopedia, Research Starters, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017. Characteristics: With great influence by nature and organic aesthetics, plant stalks, vines, or other alike serpentine objects are usually seen in Art Nouveau. In addition, in modern art, the whiplash curve is used regularly to symbolize and convey the image of growth.Bibliography: Lasky, J 2016, ‘Art Nouveau’, Salem Press Encyclopedia, Research Starters, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.Characteristics: In Minimalism, the minimum of composite use of geometry forms such as square, cube, is the basic principle. With an ideal of simplicity, geometric forms such as lines and squares are created with many identical images.Bibliography: Slomski, G 2013, ‘Minimalism Emphasizes Objects as Art’, Salem Press Encyclopedia, Research Starters, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.Characteristics: “The materials for the external surfacing usually are slabs of glass with transparency or opacity. The repetition of floors and rows of windows are easily recognized in any International Style buildings. Finally, the avoidance of ornaments or artificial patterns are essential to make the architecture to have a modern outlook.Bibliography: Museum of Modern Art (New York, NY), Hitchcock, H.R., Johnson, P. and Mumford, L., 1932. Modern Architecture: International Exhibition, New York, Feb. 10 to March 23, 1932. Museum of Modern Art.Characteristics: The characteristics of Art Deco are associated with colorful geometric forms along with the shape of lithe female. Moreover, the illustration of stylization on flowers and animals are easily seen on any Art Deco artworks. Bibliography: Hicks, WL 2017, ‘Art Deco’, Salem Press Encyclopedia, Research Starters, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017.Characteristics: With the development from the Constructivism and abstraction of determined geometric forms, the New Typography is more a completed form of graphic design than the 1980s’ one. The combination of flat color, the text, and the photography, are better in the New Typography. More importantly, which makes the New Typography distinguishes from the old one is the visible form was developed to be out of the text functions.Characteristics: Familiar subjects such as soup cans, bottles, and glass are repeatedly used by the artists in their images. Moreover, in Pop Art, photograph-like images are often merged with colorful dots and lines.