Bio Psychological Disorders Essay

Schizophrenia affects about one percent of the human population, and can be genetic. If one parent has it then their children run the risk of having this disorder. There is no known cause of this disorder it can be genetic or environmental. There is no clear answer as to why if it runs in a family it can skip generations then pop up out of the blue. Schizophrenia affects three parts of the brain the forebrain, the hindbrain, and the limbic system. The forebrain is the largest part of the brain and includes the cerebral hemisphere.

The cerebral hemisphere is divided into four lobes, the limbic system, the thalamus, hypothalamus and the corpus callosum. The forebrain controls the motor functions, sensory functions, emotional expressions, and cognition. Delusional ideas, which are a symptom of schizophrenia, are created in the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe is also where the overstimulation of dopamine impacts the decreased neural activity. The temporal lobe is where hearing, object and facial recognition is regulated.

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When schizophrenia is present the temporal lobe process is messed up which results in visual and auditory hallucinations. The hindbrain manages motor activity, posture, balance and circulation of blood. It is the lowest part of the brain, under everything and when schizophrenia is present a result is blunted movement and inappropriate body language signals. In severe cases of schizophrenia catatonic behaviors are present, characterized by rigid posture, aimless motor activity and decreased reactions. The limbic system regulates emotions, memories, learning and sexual behavior.

In a brain affected by schizophrenia impairments in this portion of the brain that create disorganized behaviors preventing normal social connecting, bizarre actions and preoccupation with inappropriate sexual content. Schizophrenia is a genetic and environmental disorder. It can be carried through the genes of a family, if a family member has schizophrenia there is a greater risk of it being passed on to a child in the family. Schizophrenia can also be caused by environmental issues; it doesn’t always have to be genetic. Stress can trigger a person to become schizophrenic.

If the person experiences a high amount of stress when they are a child they can develop this disorder as a teen or in early adulthood. To be diagnosed as having schizophrenia you can’t take a test, can’t have blood work done or really even see a regular everyday doctor, you have to see a psychiatrist. People who are diagnosed as having schizophrenia usually have a combination of symptoms. These symptoms can include hallucinations, racing thoughts, no social interaction, lack of emotions, memory problems and lack of concentration.

Not everyone who is schizophrenic has all of these symptoms however. A person whit this disorder can present with many other symptoms these are just a few examples. The neural basis of schizophrenia involves an imbalance of neurotransmitters and abnormal brain structures. Neurology is the medical field concerned with the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord and nerves. Schizophrenia is a neurological disorder and abnormalities in the neurons can lead to schizophrenia. It doesn’t always lead to this disorder however.

This disorder may be caused in part by an imbalance of chemicals in the brain, like so many other mental disorders. These imbalances happen in the neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters communicate between the nerves, organs, muscles and tissues in the body. The neural basis could also involve some abnormalities in the brain structure. Drug therapies for schizophrenia are largely ineffective against some symptoms such as memory problems, social with drawl, and emotional issues. The drugs being used today help with the hallucinations and delusions.

Many of the medications used today are second generation, or anti psychotics. Some of these include Risperdal, Abilify, and Seroquel. If those don’t work there are others that can be tried. Doctors all have the medication they think is best and will prescribe that one above all others but even with that there is one thing clear; giving more than one psychotic is not a good idea. After looking over the case studies provided I have decided upon discussing Beth’s anorexia and Mary’s insomnia. Both are interesting cases to me they seem to be presenting because of psychological issues that need to be treated.

In the case of Beth’s anorexia it is clear that she has some severe self- confidence and self- image issues. Beth feels that she is fat and that she needs to continue to lose weight even though her height and weight are in the normal range. It’s my understanding that Beth most likely has some of these issues because of all pressure to fit in with society and the emphasis that the media places on having the “perfect body”. Unfortunately Beth doesn’t seem to realize that what she is doing to her body is dangerous.

Anorexia is a dangerous disease that can kill. The human body needs food and nutrients to function and survive. Without it major organs will start to suffer and eventually shut down. Beth needs to seek some counseling and learn about this disease. Beth’s parents are at a loss with what to do to help their daughter. I think that the best treatment is to have some family therapy as well as individual therapies to find out what is causing her anorexia. Beth may also be experiencing depression because she feels she is not up to society’s standards.

Seeing a therapist will greatly help her deal with the issues she is going through and may even be able to help her raise her self-image and confidence. In Mary’s case her insomnia has just presented itself in the last month, she has no prior problems with sleeping. Mary also has no depression or history of alcohol abuse so for this to just present all of a sudden is quite unusual. There has to be something that is causing this, and underlying problem that she is consciously not aware of. For Mary I think she needs to see a psychiatrist to try and discover why this is happening to her.

Insomnia can be extremely harmful to a person, our bodies need sleep so they can replenish and rest. Without the sleep we can endanger ourselves and others. If Mary is able to find the under lying cause of her insomnia then she can be put on a medication to help with her sleeping. Even though Mary has told her doctor all about her problem he still is unsure about giving her sleeping medication fearing that she will become dependent on them. I don’t know why that is, she has no history of abusing medication or other drugs.

If her doctor were to start her out on a low dose sleep aid not a sleeping medication I think that she would be fine. There is no reason that Mary cannot take something to help her sleep. Both of these cases to me start out with underlying psychological problems. You can’t treat the ailment without starting from inside and working your way out. To treat each disorder with medication without trying to figure out why it is happening it will not fix anything. Instead you will be over medicating and possibly make the core problem even worse.

References:
http://www.schizophrenia.com/hypo.php
http://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/updates/update0205a.shtml