as of coping responses. (Lazarus and Folkman,

as the Stress Theory, the
theory explained the mental process which influence stressors. (Lazarus and
Folkman, 1984). Lazarus and Folkman (1984) Theory of Cognitive Appraisal
suggests that there are two types of coping responses. (Lazarus and Folkman,
1984). Emotion-focused coping, which is used to regulate negative emotion caused
by the stress, this form of coping is used when an individual cannot change the
stressor, and problem-focused coping, is used when the
cause of stress can be changed by using painful addressing the problem causing
distress using strategies such as information gathering and decision making. (Jensen,
Forlini, Partridge & Hall, 2016). Additionally, when faced with stress,
individuals typically use both emotion-focused and problem-focused coping
strategies to manage their stress, as they can both be applied in any stressful
situation. (Jensen, Forlini, Partridge & Hall, 2016). Nevertheless, individuals
are dependent on the assessment of the situation (i.e., as a threat and or a
challenge) to decide on which coping mechanism to adopt. (Berjot & Gillet,

Emotion-focused coping
strategies aims to reduce the negative emotions (i.e. embarrassment, fear and anger)
that are associated with stressful events. (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984).
However, emotion-focused coping (i.e. eating, drinking and taking drugs) are
often less effective than using problem-focused methods in relation to health
outcomes. (Penley, Tomaka, & Weibe, 2012).
Emotion-focused coping does not provide a long-term solution. (Dijkstra &
Homan, 2016). Although emotion-focused coping is the better option when the
cause of stress is out of an individual’s control.

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Problem-focused coping
aims to target the causes of stress in constructive ways, such as managing,
tackling or altering the cause of the stressful situation. (Jensen, Forlini, Partridge & Hall, 2016). Unlike
emotion-focused coping, problem-focused coping can provide a long-term
solution, as it removes the stressor, and deals with the cause of the problem.
(Jensen, Forlini, Partridge & Hall, 2016). However, problem focused
approaches do have weaknesses as they are ineffective when a situation is
beyond the individual’s control in removing the source of stress (i.e. sudden