Kuala Lumpur is Malaysia capital and the states hub for and concern. Many local and transnational corporations and concerns are located in Kuala Lumpur metropolis centre. To run into their turning and complex demands the metropolis is being reengineered. The alterations was start from 1880ss have been rather drastic. Its land usage impact has rendered incapable the metropolis ‘s inundation direction installations to execute. Traditional ways to cut down the job are no longer effectual. A more effectual attack was preparation of Stormwater Management And Road Tunnel to mitigated the job. SMART is the universe foremost double use of inundation direction and route solution for Kuala Lumpur. This paper discusses the Kuala Lumpur deluging scene, actions will be taken by the authorities, why alteration to the program was necessary and what is the present twenty-four hours solution being implemented. Nowadays more high engineering to mitigated inundation is used tunnel to confine divert inundation H2O and modulate its release through downstream rivers. SMART involves the building of a 9.7 kilometer long by 11.8 m internal diameter bored tunnel, six hydraulic constructions, two detainments pools, a 0.5 kilometer long release culvert, and legion other subsidiary installations such as expressway constructions, vent semen rush shafts and a inundation sensing system. The cardinal 3 km length of the tunnel will besides be used as a two-lane double-deck expressway.
SMART system works on the three rule manners based on the inundation discharge ar the Klang River or Ampang River meeting and the operation position of the expressway. First manner is normal status is when there is no storm or low rainfall ; no inundation H2O will be diverted into the system. Second manner is moderate storm, SMART system will be activated and the inundation H2O is diverted into the beltway tunnel in the lower channel of the expressway tunnel and it is of import to observe, that, at this phase, the expressway is still unfastened to traffic. Last manner is heavy storm ; the expresswaies will be closed to traffic.
The tunnel was built to supply traffic alleviation on the chief Southern gateway to the metropolis Centre from the South ( KL-Seremban Highway ) and West ( Federal Highway ) . The 3 kilometers motoway tunnel is merely accessible to autos, MPVs and SUVs non transcending 2.00 thousand tallness. No bikes, coachs or lorries are allowed in. By supplying the 24 hours bid Centre, CCTV surveillance, exigency phone, airing system and FM/mobile response allowance, it becomes more progress for the tunnel users.
A major consideration was made for tunnel safety intent which the ventilation/escape shafts were located at 1 kilometer intervals ; these powerful air ventilators will invariably regenerate the air and keep the air quality within the expressway. The characteristic besides allows for fume control in the event of a fire. Furthermore, the tunnel was equipped with the fire combat, telecommunication and surveillance equipment at 1 kilometer interval.
4.0 Literature Review
4.1 Definition of Tunnel
A tunnel is defined as belowground paths or transitions driven through the land without upseting the overlying dirt or stone screen. Tunnels usually are classified into three utilizations, foremost is traffic tunnels, hydro-power tunnels and public public-service corporation tunnels. A conventional tunneling method which is uses extensively explosives and manual labor. While, in 21st century tunnel digging is done by Tunnel Boring Machines ( TBM ‘s ) .
4.2 SMART Tunnel
Tunneling is one of the common solutions in building industry to get by with the troubles cause by the restricted country and the topography elements of the environment. SMART is an acronym for Storm H2O Management and Road Tunnel, to relieve the implosion therapy job in the metropolis Centre of Kuala Lumpur. Simultaneously, the tunnel was built to supply traffic alleviation on the chief Southern gateway to the metropolis Centre from the South ( KL-Seremban Highway ) and West ( Federal Highway ) .
4.2.1 Stored Stormwater
The Smart Tunnel primary functions are design to extenuate the implosion therapy job and traffic congestion around the metropolis Centre during peak hours. The keeping pool located at Kg. Berembang, when the keeping pool H2O degree is up to 34.00mLSD the recreation is activated ; the H2O will later be channeled via the tunnel to a storage pool in Taman Desa before being released into Sungai Kerayong. Harmonizing Mohd Fuad, this procedure would cut down the floodwater coming from Sg. Klang and thereby forestalling Sg.
Gombak and Sg. Klang from spliting their Bankss and overruning in the event of a storm ( SMART Tunnel, 2007 ) .
4.2.2 Operation manners
Mode 1 will be the normal state of affairs in most yearss of the twelvemonth. Mode 2 is expected possibly eight to ten times each twelvemonth. Mode 3 may go on one time in a twelvemonth or two old ages. During mode 2 or 3 state of affairss, the recreation through the tunnel will non transcend 8 hours. Thereafter another 10 hours at the most is required to dewater the system for killing. Notwithstanding this, the constituent for stormwater direction is designed to be ready in 24 hours for managing the following storm.
When there is no storm H2O, the expressway tunnel will operates every bit usual and no H2O at the lower channel
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gamuda.com.my/i/smart-diagram1.jpg
Figure 2.1: Normal storm ( Beginnings: Gamuda, 2012 )
During the centrist of storm, the stormwater will short-circuit the lower channel of tunnel when the rainwater is extra the bound but without impacting the upper and lower decks of expresswaies tunnel.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gamuda.com.my/i/smart-diagram2.jpg
Figure 2.2: Moderate storm ( Beginnings: Gamuda, 2012 )
During heavy rain and storm H2O, the electronics board will publish an qui vive of the tunnel will be near the expressway tunnel. The tunnel direction will let sufficient clip for vehicle to be the tunnel. After the machine-controlled water-tight are opened the tunnel will full with storm H2O and will be divert to Sungai Kerayong. The expressway tunnel merely needs 48 hours to be re-opened after closing
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gamuda.com.my/i/smart-diagram3.jpg
Figure 2.3: Heavy storm ( Beginnings: Gamuda, 2012 )
4.3 Transportation system
4.3.1 Road Deck of Tunnel
The 3 kilometers double purpose route tunnel is building in dual deck for the safety intents. The lower deck is for the users come ining the metropolis Centre and the upper deck is for users go forthing the metropolis. Lower and upper deck is designed in one manner way to come ining or go forthing the metropolis. Due to the restriction of headway inside the tunnel, merely light vehicle is allowed to come in the tunnel.
The route decks were constructed in two pours. First the lower deck and secondly sidewalls and upper deck. The original design and awaited building method was modified to that utilizing precast boards, 100mm midst transporting the lower support coop, introduced, similar to the ‘Omni ‘ system used in span decks. To accomplish programme the work progressed at the same clip that TBM burrowing continued while deck building proceeded above the TBM service railroad. Commissariats for water faucet, overseas telegrams and gaps to traverse transitions are provided within the secondary mass concrete placed inside the structural walls. ( Yeoh Hin Kok et al. , 2007 )
4.4 Tunneling Methods
4.4.1 New Austrian Tunneling Method ( NATM )
‘NATM ‘ or ‘New Austrian Burrowing Method ‘ was since developing 1957, the excavated method is in forepart is drilled, charges placed, and detonated. If choose utilizing this method it is of import that the dirt status around the tunnel must be wholly understood. In homogenous stuff or cavity-filled stone, the ‘drill and blast ‘ technique may non be the good pick.
The chief concern pointed out by Muller ( 1978 ) in any soft land application of NATM is that the shotcrete ring must be closed every bit early as possible. One of the grounds for rapid ring closing is to forestall surface edifices enduring harm from colony. Another ground is that the shorter stand-up clip of soft land is due to the bond between dirt atoms being weaker and coherence is besides lower than for stones ( Karakus et al. , 2004 )
The tunnel is excavated and supported by the initial land support such as shotcrete combination with fibre or welded-wire fabric support. For stabilise the land by dirt nailing or spilling. The lasting support is a dramatis personae insitu concrete liner.
4.4.2 Tunnel Boring Machine ( TBM )
Two chief types of tunnel drilling machine ( TBM ) are used in osft land, slurry TBM and an earth force per unit area balance ( EPB ) TBM. Both types operate with a certain forepart compartment that is kept under sufficient force per unit area to stabilise the face and minimise land motion. EPB TBMs have been limited to diameters less than 33 foots due to the high torsion needed to drive the rotating cutter caput, although other signifiers of thrust may get the better of this restriction. Slurry TBM has been built up 50 ft diameter, and larger sizes are planned. Colony at the surface in soft land is straight related to the per centum loss of stuff outside the tunnel. Typical loss of stuff prevarications between 0.5 % and 2.5 % . Factors impacting the loss include the belongingss of the stuff traversed, the face force per unit area used, used the design of the shield, and the rate of progress. Tunnels exist where the loss has been zero. Soft land TBMs are by and large launched from a comparatively little shaft, with subsequent parts of the machine being added as advancement is made. ( Merrit, 1976 )
The liner of the tunnel is built up by the dual tapering pre-cast concrete rings. The rings are designed as dual tapering rings and each ring consists of 8 sections and a anchor. The anchor of each ring is located above the spring line which is horizontal centre line. The pre-cast concrete liners are immense and heavy, hence an erector is needed to raise them up and topographic point in the right place in the tunnel by the TBM hydraulic weaponries, which working rotationally. Following, the liner will bolt among each other. the concluding measure is fill up the nothingnesss in between the excavated surface and the outer surface of the tunnel liner with cement howitzer grout under pressurized conditions to guarantee that all the nothingnesss are to the full filled. A entire 5390 rings or 43120 sections plus 5390 keys are needed to line the full 9.7 kilometers long tunnel. The tunnel digging agenda was based on an mean production rate of six 1.7m broad rings per twenty-four hours, working two displacements per twenty-four hours, 7 yearss per hebdomad for both TBMs. The undertaking ‘s best advancement to day of the month is 11 rings or 18.40m in a 24 hr production twenty-four hours recorded by the South Drive TBM in February 2005.
As the TBMs underpass several of import constructions including the paths of urban train services it must guarantee that the building procedure is non disrupting the normal services. A few electric resistance studies of local land conditions are interpreted to measure the hazard to the sensitive constructions and necessary pre-treament is considered and instructed by the site direction.
4.5.1 Ground support design
Most tunnels and unfastened diggings require some signifier of lasting land support. Removal of stuff causes imbalanced dirt or stone emphasiss that cut down the capacity of the digging to back up itself. Changing geological conditions mean that control measures that have worked antecedently may non be satisfactory under these changed conditions ( Queensland Government, 2007 ) .
An alternate to impermanent land support may be to utilize overhead protection. Ground support systems include technology issues that involve both structural design and soil/rock mechanics. Using land support, designed for the alone fortunes of the current state of affairs, is indispensable to command the hazard of a prostration or burrow support failure ( Queensland Government, 2007 ) .
5.0 Aim and Objective
Bases on the latest researches done on SMART, the chief job is during raining season the storm H2O will flux from Sungai Gombak to Sungai Klang before dispatching to Melaka Strait. This was the chief causes of deluging in around Kuala Lumpur City Centre. SMART is used to extenuate the implosion therapy around the metropolis Centre in high engineering.
To place the utilizations of tunnel
To analyze the types of methods used on tunnel building
To analyze the factors to be considered in tunnel building
6.0 Research Methodology
Phase 1: Literature reappraisal
Before we carried out the research proposal, preliminary work is really indispensable and need to be carried out of this survey. For descriptive literature reappraisal describes the work of old authors, while for analytical literature reappraisal analyses critically the part of others with the position of placing similarities and contradictions made by old authors.
There are three types of literature beginnings ; Primary literature is the most accurate beginning of information as it publishes original research. Primary beginnings consist of academic research diaries, refereed conferences, thesis, study or occasional paper, and authorities publications. The secondary literature beginnings are those that cite from primary beginnings such as text editions, and newspaper articles. The concluding literature beginning are mentions guide, it is really utile beginnings of information for short and speedy replies to basic inquiry. The map of the mentions usher is to present the basic information about a peculiar capable country. Beginnings that autumn within these ushers are lexicons, glossaries, encyclopedias and enchiridions ( Naoum, 1998 ) .
From these literature stuffs, the information will be obtained to accomplish the aims. All of the information that obtained will really utile in this research which can supply guideline and overview of.
Phase 2: Fieldwork research
In fieldwork research, there are 4 types of research methodological analysiss which are instance survey, experimental, interview and questionnaire. Case survey is used when the research worker intends to back up the statement by an in-depth analysis of a individual, a group of individuals, an organisation or a peculiar undertaking ( Naoum, 1998 ) .
Semi-structural interview is adopted for gather the primary information because the interviewer has a great trade of freedom to examine assorted countries and to raise specific questions during the class of the interview ( Naoum, 1998 ) . Besides that, it is more formal than the unstructured interview. This signifier of interview uses ‘open ‘ and ‘closed-ended ‘ oppugning but the inquiry are non asked in specific order and no agenda is used ( Naoum, 1998 ) .
A semi-structured interview is flexible ; leting new inquiries to be brought up during the interview as a consequence of what the interviewee says. There are 2 respondent will affect in this interview, there are from MMC-Gamuda Joint Venture, and Syarikat Mengurus Air Banjir & A ; Terowong Sdn. Bhd.
7.0 Anticipated Findingss / Contribution
After done this research, found out that SMART is really utile and advanced substructure to our Malaysia. Every twelvemonth happened inundation around the metropolis Centre will lose a million of belongings, public installations, and substructure and so on. After a few old ages of survey to extenuate the inundation happened, our authorities was denoting this undertaking to work out the job. While the traffic congestion around the metropolis Centre was acquiring solve after this undertaking was done and give a batch of convenience to the citizens to come ining and go forthing the metropolis Centre. This SMART was work outing the implosion therapy job and traffic congestion which are more and more serious around the metropolis Centre of Kuala Lumpur really efficaciously. Other than that, this SMART undertaking was giving our local contractors a really great experience on building method usage for the tunnel undertaking. If the authorities want to build a tunnel for mitigate the inundation job at Johor. The whole undertaking can make by our local applied scientists and contractors. Finding from this research is our Malayan besides can make an innovative and effectual substructure to extenuate the inundation job.
8.0 Working Programme and Timetable
Undertakings to be completed
Discussion on subject of involvement
Confirm subject selected with
coach, seeking relevant
information on subject selected
Research purpose and aims
Research methodological analysis
Anticipated findings /
Working programme and
Planned chapter construction
Checking the manner, grammar,
Recognition of beginnings
and Mentions list
Complete the research
proposal and submit
9.0 Planned Organisation of Dissertation
To place the utilizations of tunnel
To analyze the types of methods used on tunnel building
To analyze the factors to be considered in tunnel building
9.1 Outline Chapter
Chapter 1: Introduction- This chapter consists of defines what are Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel ( SMART ) and some specification of the tunnel.
Chapter 2: Literature Review- This chapter consists of survey what is the utilizations of tunnel, methods of tunnel building and factors considered in tunnel building.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology- This chapter consists of how to acquire the qualitative and quantitative informations from.
Chapter 4: Datas aggregation through questionnaire study and interview- This chapter consists of interview of the SMART building squad.
Chapter 5: Datas analysis- This chapter consists of informations analysis after interview the building squad and gets back the questionnaire.
Chapter 6: References- This chapter is where I get the information.