1. nitrate and sodium hydroxideGel like, and

1. Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to see evidence of chemical and physical changes and understand what was happening during the changes. 2. Procedure: Combine 5mL of copper (II) nitrate and 5 mL of sodium hydroxide in test tube. Then put the contents in a hot water bath for 2 minutes, then let it cool. Then add 5 mL of hydrochloric acid to the test tube, and mix. Finally place a 10 cm piece of aluminum wire in the test tube, and after no more reaction check the bottom of the test tube for a temperature change. 3. Data: Data TableStep #ObservationsStep 3 – Mixing copper (II) nitrate and sodium hydroxideGel like, and light blue color.Step 4 – Heating test tube and contentsBlack color, solid near top of test tube and a clear liquid near bottom of test tube.Step 5 – Adding hydrochloric acidLiquid, light blue colorStep 6 – Adding aluminium wireBubbling, rod covered in brown and orange like substance, the bottom of the test tube is warmer4. Conclusion: In this experiment the mixing of copper (II) nitrate and sodium hydroxide created a chemical reaction that turned the substance into a light blue gel like substance. The reason that this reaction was a chemical reaction was because the change was due to adding another substance. The heating of the copper (II) nitrate and sodium hydroxide created a physical reaction because the heat caused the mixture to change state. When hydrochloric acid was added to the heated mixture it caused a chemical reaction that caused the substance to go back to copper (II) nitrate. Once the aluminum wire was added into the substance it created a chemical reaction because it caused bubbling, a warmer temperature, and a brown orange substance on the wire. The substance on the wire represented a copper substance similar looking to rust. 5. Discussion of Theory: The theory that correlates with this experiment is collision theory. Collision theory is defined as a “theory used to predict the rates of chemical reactions” by “Collision Theory” written by the editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. The way that this connects with the experiment is because during the experiment there were two chemical reactions, and this theory helps to understand there rates. In the article, “Collision Theory” by chemistry LibreTexts, collision theory also has to have molecules that collide. Written in the article, “The Collision Theory of Reaction Rates” published by chemguide, it is also stated that collision theory doesn’t always have to possess a reaction. Throughout the experiment the sign of collision theory are evident because they show different types of chemical reaction, and the lab does this when mixing copper (II) nitrate and sodium hydroxide. The lab also shows the chemical reaction when hydrochloric acid is mixed into the mixture, and when the aluminum wire is added in. The chemical changes were easy to see because of the changes in color, temperature, and state. These changes only occur when more than one substance collided, the only time that a physical reaction occurred was when the mixture was heated and changed state. Therefore this experiment utilizes and shows the collision theory.6. Questions: Pre-lab:Wear goggles, pull hair back, and don’t drink the chemicals.Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Copper (II) nitrate Cu(NO3)2, Water (H2O)Bubbles, steam, change of state, and color changeHeat and another substance. Post-lab:Endothermic because the blue precipitate absorbed the heat.CU(NO3)3 + NaOH Cu(OH)3(s) + Na No3 aqExothermic because the reaction of the 2 was what gave off the heat.CopperThe mass would have increased because a substance formed around the aluminum rod.The heating of the test tube and the contents.